Dutch II Tutorial: Basic Phrases, Vocabulary and Grammar


21. Possessive Adjectives

 

Singular Plural
mijn (m'n)
jouw (je)
uw
my
your (informal)
your (formal)
ons / onze
jullie (je)
uw
our
your (informal)
your (formal)
zijn (z'n)
haar
zijn (z'n)
his
her
its
hun their

Ons is used before singular neuter/het nouns, and onze is used elsewhere (before singular common/de nouns, and all plural nouns.) Je, the unstressed form of jouw, is commonly used in spoken and written Dutch, unless the speaker/writer wants to stress the pronoun. In the plural, jullie is the norm, unless jullie has already been used in the sentence, then je is used to avoid the redundancy. The other unstressed forms are not commonly written in the standard language, but are commonly spoken and written in informal communication.

Like in English, Dutch possessive adjectives are used in front of a noun to show possession: mijn boek (my book). There are a few ways to express the -'s used in English too. -s can be added to proper names and members of the family: Jans boek (John's book) The preposition van can be used to mean of: het boek van Jan (the book of John = John's book) And in more colloquial speech, the unstressed forms in parentheses above (agreeing in gender and number) can be used in place of the -s: Jan z'n boek (John's book)

To form the possessive pronouns, add -e to the stressed forms (except for jullie) and use the correct article. The only way to show possession with jullie is to use van jou (literally meaning "of you"), although all the others can be used with van too.

de/het mijne, jouwe, uwe, zijne, hare, onze, hunne (mine, yours, yours, his/its, hers, ours, theirs)


22. To Do and to Make

doen - to do maken - to make
doe doo doen doon maak mahk maken mah-kuh
doet doot doen doon maakt mahkt maken mah-kuh
doet doot doen doon maakt mahkt maken mah-kuh

Expressions with doen:

doen alsof - to act as though
doen denken aan - to remind of
dichtdoen - to close
opendoen - to open
pijndoen - to hurt, cause pain


23. Work

  male female (if different from male)
actor acteur actrice
actor (stage) toneelspeler toneelspeelster
author/writer schrijver schrifster
baker bakker bakster
bookkeeper boekhouder boekhoudster
bookseller boekhandelaar boekhandelaarster
butcher slager  
cashier kassajongen kassameisje
dentist tandarts  
doctor dokter  
engineer ingenieur  
hairdresser kapper kapster
journalist journalist journaliste
judge rechter  
lawyer advocaat  
mail man postbode  
mechanic monteur  
musician muzikant muzikante
nurse verpleger verpleegster
office worker kantoormedewerker kantoormedewerkster
officer officier  
painter schilder schilderes
photographer fotograaf fotografe
salesperson verkoper verkoopster
secretary secretaris secretaresse
singer zanger zangeres
soldier soldaat  
surgeon chirurg  
teacher leraar lerares


24. Prepositions

about over in in, over (used with time)
above / over boven / over in front of voor
according to volgens inside / within binnen
after na in spite of ondanks
against tegen near bij
along langs next to naast
around rond(om) of van
at bij, om, aan on top of / on op / aan
because of vanwege opposite tegenover
before voor out (of) uit
behind achter since sinds, sedert
between tussen through door
by met, door to aan, naar(toe) (direction towards something)
during gedurende, tijdens under onder
except for behalve voor  until tot, totdat
for voor with met
from van, uit, vandaan without zonder 

 

At translates as bij when it's a personal location, such as ik ben bij Jan (I'm at Johns place/I am with John). Om refers to time: om 12 uur (at noon); and aan refers to an impersonal location: aan tafel (at the table). By is met in the sense of ik doe het met de hand (I do it by hand) or ik ga met het vliegtuig (I go by plane). From is van when it refers to a person, een kado van jou (a gift from you); and uit when it is a location, ik kom uit Japan (I come from Japan.) Vandaan indicates from where, as in waar kom jij vandaan (where are you from?)


25. Countries and Nationalities

Country Nationality (masc. / fem.)
Africa Afrika Afrikaan / Afrikaanse
America Amerika Amerikaan / Amerikaanse
Argentina Argentinië Argentijn / Argentijnse
Asia Azië Aziaat
Austria Oostenrijk Oostenrijker / Oostenrijkse
Belgium België Belg / Belgische
Brazil Brazili Braziliaan / Braziliaanse
China China Chinees / Chinese
Denmark Denemarken Deen / Deense
England Engeland Engelsman / Engelse
Europe Europa Europeaan
France Frankrijk Fransman / Française
Germany Duitsland Duitser / Duitse
Great Britain Groot Brittani Brit / Britse
Greece Griekenland Griek / Griekse
Holland Holland Hollander / Hollandse
Hungary Hongarije Hongaar / Hongaarse
India India Indir / Indische
Ireland Ierland Ier / Ierse
Italy Italië Italiaan / Italiaanse
Japan Japan Japanner / Japanse
Netherlands Nederland Nederlander / Nederlandse
Norway Noorwegen Noor / Noorse
Poland Polen Pool / Poolse
Portugal Portugal Portugees / Portugese
Russia Rusland Rus / Russin
Spain Spanje Spanjaard / Spaanse
Sweden Zweden Zweed / Zweedse
Switzerland Zwitserland Zwitser / Zwitserse
Turkey Turkije Turk / Turkse
United States Verenigde Staten Amerikaan / Amerikaanse

The feminine form of many occupations and nationalities is indicated by one of five endings. For most nationalities, -e is added, as in Nederlandse (Dutch woman). The endings -in, -es, -esse and -ster are also used to form female counterparts. -ster is added to verbs while -esse replaces the -is ending of some nouns.

boer - boerin (farmer - female farmer/farmer's wife)
leeuw - leeuwin (lion - lioness)
koning - koningin (king - queen)
Rus - Russin (Russian man - Russian woman)
leraar - lerares (male teacher - female teacher)
prins - prinses (prince - princess)
student - studente (male student - female student)
secretaris - secretaresse (male secretary - female secretary)
bibliothekaris - bibliothekaresse (male librarian - female librarian)
schrijfer - scrijfster (write - female author)
verpleeger - verpleegster (nurse - female nurse)

26. Negative Sentences

The word niet (not) is used to negate sentences, and is generally placed at the end of the clause. However, niet precedes a preposition, an adjective that follows a noun, and the words binnen (inside), buiten (outside), beneden (downstairs), boven (upstairs) and thuis (at home).

Een is usually not preceded by niet or any phrase ending with niet (ook niet - not either, nog niet - not yet). Instead, geen, ook geen and nog geen replace the article. Geen is translated by not a, not any or no when followed by a noun in English. Geen also negates nouns that cannot be counted, such as water, bier and wijn.

Jan leest niet. Jan does not read.
Hij werkt volgende week ook niet. He is not working next week either.
Ik wil geen kopje koffie. I don't want a cup of coffee.
Zij hebben nog geen huis gevonden. They have not found a house yet.


27.To Come and to Go

komen - to come gaan - to go
kom kawm komen koh-muh ga gah gaan gahn
komt kawmt komen koh-muh gaat gaht gaan gahn
komt kawmt komen koh-muh gaat gaht gaan gahn

Expressions with komen and gaan:

Hoe komt het dat.. ? How is it that.. ?
Hoe gaat het met u? How are you?
Het gaat goed met me. I am fine.
gaan zitten - to sit down, be seated


28. To and From Countries and Cities

to
from
naar
uit

 

Ik kom uit Nederland. I come from the Netherlands.
Zij gaat naar New York. She's going to New York.


29. Conjugating Regular verbs

English has three ways of expressing the present tense, such as I run, I am running, I do run.  All three of these tenses are translated as one tense in Dutch. Most verbs are regular in Dutch in the present tense, and it is formed by using the verb stem (the infinitive minus the -en), and adding these endings (Note that there is no ending for the first person singular form, and all the plural forms are identical to the infinitive):

Verb endings drinken - to drink
-
-t
-t
-en
-en
-en
drink
drinkt
drinkt
drinken
drinken
drinken

There is, however, an alternative present tense to express an action that is currently happening: use zijn aan het with the infinitive. Ik ben aan het koken would translate as I am cooking (right now.)

The perfect tense in English of expressions of "for," "since" and "how long?" are rendered by the present tense in Dutch:
Ik woon hier al vijf jaar. I have lived here for five years.
Hij werkt sinds april met zijn broer. He has been working with his brother since April.

Graag is an adverb used with verbs to express "to like to.." instead of using the verb houden van, which literally means to like or love.

To form questions, simply invert the subject and verb. For the second person singular form (jij), the -t ending of the conjugated verb is dropped. Dutch does not have an equivalent of the English "do" in questions, so Woon jij in Rotterdam? means Do you live in Rotterdam? although it literally is Live you in Rotterdam?


30. Irregularities in Regular verbs 

When you add the present tense endings, you must observe the regular spelling rules in Dutch. Words with long vowels (aa, ee, oo, and uu) drop the one vowel when another syllable is added. Words with the short vowels (a, e, i, o and u) double the following consonant to keep the vowels short. The letters f and s occur at the end of words or before consonants, while the letters v and z occur in the middle of words before vowels. Notice how the infinitive is still identical to the plural conjugations for wij, jullie, and zij, and the stem is identical to the ik form.

Infinitive
Stem & ik form
jij, hij, etc.
wij, jullie, etc.
betalen
blijven
hopen
raden
geloven
schrijven
kiezen
haten
leven
lezen
praten
rijden
wassen
gaan
staan
slaan
to pay
to stay
to hope
to guess
to believe
to write
to choose
to hate
to live
to read
to talk
to ride
to wash
to go
to stand
to hit
betaal
blijf
hoop
raad
geloof
schrijf
kies
haat
leef
lees
praat
rijd
was
ga
sta
sla
betaalt
blijft
hoopt
raadt
gelooft
schrijft
kiest
haat
leeft
leest
praat
rijdt
wast
gaat
staat
slaat
betalen
blijven
hopen
raden
geloven
schrijven
kiezen
haten
leven
lezen
praten
rijden
wassen
gaan
staan
slaan

One verb that does not follow the spelling rule is komen. The singular forms are all written and pronounced with the short o, while the plural forms are written and pronounced with the long o: kom, komt and komen. (According to the spelling rules, the singular forms should be the long o, but they are not.)

There are five verbs whose ending is only -n: gaan (to go), staan (to stand), slaan (to hit), doen (to do) and zien (to see); the first three change according to the spelling rules.

If a stem ends in -t, you do not add another -t for the second and third person singular forms. zitten - to sit; hij zit - he sits

Verb stems that end in -oud and -ijd drop the -d in the first person singular and in question forms of the second person singular form. The -d can be written, but it is not pronounced. rijden - to ride; ik rij(d) - I ride; rij(d) jij? - do you ride?


31. Modal Verbs

In Dutch, there are four modals: kunnen - to be able to, can; moeten - to have to, must; mogen - to be allowed to, may; and willen - to want to. Modals can be used with other infinitives without the use of prepositions.


  kunnen moeten mogen willen
ik
jij / u
hij / zij / het
wij
jullie
zij
kan
kan / kunt
kan
kunnen
kunnen
kunnen
moet
moet
moet
moeten
moeten
moeten
mag
mag
mag
mogen
mogen
mogen
wil
wil / wilt
wil
willen
willen
willen

The -t of kunt and wilt are dropped in inversions with jij, but not with moet. Kan and kunt are used interchangeably for the second person singular form of kunnen, so jij kan and jij kunt as well as jij wil and jij wilt are both possible. The main difference is that kan and wil are considered slightly more informal with jij than kunt or wilt.

Common verbs, such as doen and gaan, can be omitted in Dutch after modals, but not in the English translation. In addition, impersonal constructions with het/dat + modals are used.

Dat kan. That's possible/can be done.
Het moet.
It must be done.

When modals are used with other verbs, the other verb is in the infinitive and placed at the end of the clause or sentence.


32. Reflexive Verbs

Reflexive verbs express an action that reciprocates back to the subject. In other words, whoever is speaking is doing an action to himself. Examples in English would be: I wash myself, he hurts himself, we hate ourselves. The reflexive pronouns always follow the subject and verb.

Reflexive Pronouns

me
je / u
zich
ons
je
zich

The reflexive pronoun u is often replaced by zich to avoid the double occurrence of u.

Verbs that are always reflexive:

zich afvragen
zich bevinden
zich ergeren
zich gedragen
zich generen
zich haasten
zich herinneren
zich herstellen
zich schamen voor
zich vergissen in
zich verheugen op
zich verslapen
zich voorstellen
ask oneself
find oneself
get annoyed by
behave
be embarrassed
hurry
remember
recover
be ashamed of
be mistaken about
look forward to
oversleep
imagine, introduce oneself


Verbs that can be reflexive or used with other direct objects

aankleden
amuseren
bewegen
ergeren
opwinden
scheren
snijden
uitkleden
verbazen
verdedigen
verkleden
verontschuldigen
verschuilen
vervelen
voelen
wassen
get dressed
enjoy oneself
move
make angry
get excited
shave (oneself)
cut oneself
undress (oneself)
be amazed
defend oneself
change clothes
excuse oneself/apologize
hide (oneself)
to be bored
feel
wash (oneself)

Emphatic Forms

mezelf
jezelf
zichzelf
onszelf
jezelf
zichzelf

The emphatic forms of the reflexive pronouns can only be used with the verbs that can be reflexive or used with other direct objects, and never with verbs that are always reflexive.

Elkaar is used when there is a reciprocal meaning of "each other" in English.


33. Verbs followed by Prepositions

afhangen van depend on
bang zijn voor be afraid of
deelnemen aan take part in
denken aan think of/about
feliciteren met congratulate on
gebrek hebben aan be short of
herinneren aan remind
houden van like, love (things or people)
huilen om cry at/about
kijken naar look at/watch
lachen om laugh at
letten op pay attention to
lijden aan suffer from
luisteren naar listen to
praten/spreken met talk to
reageren op react to
rekenen op rely on
sterven aan die of
trek/zin hebben in want
trouwen met marry
twijfelen aan doubt
vragen om ask for
weten van know about
zeggen tegen say to
zorgen voor care for

34. Separable Prefixes

aan- af- binnen- in- na- onder- over- toe- voor-
achter- bij- door- mee- om- op- tegen- uit- -weg

When verbs with separable prefixes are conjugated, the prefixes go to the end of the clause or sentence. For example, uitgaan (to go out) and weggaan (to go away):

Gaan jullie niet meer uit? Don't you go out anymore?
Hij gaat vandaag weg. He's going away today.


35. Inseparable Prefixes

be- ont- ge-
her- ver- er-

 

These prefixes always remain attached to their infinitives.  The inseparable prefixes are unstressed syllables, as compared to the separable prefixes, of which most can stand alone as prepositions. -ann, -onder, -over, -door, -voor and -om can also be inseparable prefixes if they are unstressed.


36. Present Perfect or Past Indefinite Tense

This tense is used more often than the simple past, especially in conversation, and is equivalent to I have asked or I asked.  Regular verbs use a form of hebben or zijn and a past participle.  Past participles are made by adding ge- to the beginning of the verb stem and -t or -d to the end.   Verb stems are the infinitives minus the -en, with the appropriate spelling changes. The stems are identical to the first person singular present tense form.

-t is added to stems ending in t, k, f, s, ch, and p (note that if the stem ends in -t already, you do not double the consonant), while -d is added to all other stems, except those already ending in -d. (If a stem ends in -f or -s, but the infinitive contained -v or -z, then still add a -d)

Verbs with inseparable prefixes do not add ge- in this tense. Verbs with separable prefixes add the ge after the prefix and before the stem (afgemaakt).

Verb Stem Past Participle
hopen
maken
blaffen
missen
dromen
bellen
loven
vrezen
praten
koken
blaffen
kuchen
bouwen
horen
branden
bedoelen
bepraten
geloven
verhuizen
afmaken
to hope
to make
to bark
to miss
to dream
to ring
to praise
to be afraid
to talk
to cook
to bark
to cough
to build
to hear
to burn
to mean
to discuss
to believe
to move house
to finish
hoop
maak
blaf
mis
droom
bel
loof
vrees
praat
kook
blaf
kuch
bouw
hoor
brand
bedoel
bepraat
geloof
verhuis
af...maak
gehoopt
gemaakt
geblaft
gemist
gedroomd
gebeld
geloofd
gevreesd
gepraat
gekookt
geblaft
gekucht
gebouwd
gehoord
gebrand
bedoeld
bepraat
geloofd
verhuisd
afgemaakt

Hebben vs. Zijn
Some verbs of motion can take either hebben or zijn depending on whether it is the action that is stressed (hebben) or the destination/direction (zijn.) Verbs taking zijn are generally intransitive (they do not take direct objects) and denote a change in motion/position or change in state/condition. Most verbs derived from zijn verbs also take zijn in the perfect tense.

Modals
The past participles of the modals (kunnen: gekund; moeten: gemoeten; mogen: gemoogd, willen: gewild) are only used when the modal is used independently of another verb.
Ik heb het gemoeten
. I had to (do it).

If the perfect tense of a modal is used with another verb, then the past participle of the modal is replaced by its infinitive. This double infinitive construction (infinitive of modal + other infinitive) is always placed at the end of the clause or sentence.
Ik heb gisteren kunnen komen
. I was able to come yesterday.


37. Irregular Past Participles

  Infinitive Past Participle   Infinitive Past Participle
begin beginnen begonnen walk lopen gelopen
understand begrijpen begrepen must, have to moeten gemoeten
offer bieden geboden may mogen gemogen
remain blijven gebleven call roepen geroepen
break breken gebroken write schrijven geschreven
bring brengen gebracht sleep slapen geslapen
think denken gedacht hit slaan geslagen
do doen gedaan stand staan gestaan
drink drinken gedronken speak spreken gesproken
eat eten gegeten die sterven gestorven
go gaan gegaan forget vergeten vergeten
give geven gegeven lose verliezen verloren
have hebben gehad find vinden gevonden
help helpen geholpen ask vragen gevraagd
be called heten geheten know weten geweten
hold houden gehouden show wijzen gewezen
look kijken gekeken want willen gewild
come komen gekomen become worden geworden
buy kopen gekocht say zeggen gezegd
get krijgen gekregen see zien gezien
can, be able to kunnen gekund be zijn geweest
let laten gelaten sing zingen gezongen
read lezen gelezen sit zitten gezeten
lie liggen gelegen look for zoeken gezocht


38. Zijn Verbs

A few common verbs take zijn instead of hebben in the present perfect tense:

blijven
blijken
gaan
gebeuren
komen
to stay
to appear/seem
to go
to happen
to come
stoppen/ophouden
verdwijnen
verschijnen
worden
zijn
to stop
to disappear
to appear
to become
to be


39. Food and Meals

breakfast ontbijt (n) bread brood (n)
lunch middagmaal (n), lunch pepper peper
dinner avondeten (n) salt zout (n)
glass glas (n) ice ijs
fork vork vinegar azijn
spoon lepel oil olie
knife mes (n) sugar suiker
napkin servet (n) butter boter
plate bord (n) table tafel
silverware bestek (n) dish schotel
tea thee juice sap
steak biefstuk water water
cake taart / cake / koek wine wijn
ice cream roomijs (n) beer bier (n)
coffee koffie beverage drank
pie vlaai milk melk
mustard mosterd egg ei (n)
rice rijst
honey honing
jam jam snack snack, tussendoortje
soup soep cheese kaas
salad salade cookies koekje


40. Fruits, Vegetables and Meats

fruit vrucht cabbage kool
pineapple ananas pumpkin pompoen
apple appel olive olijf
apricot abrikoos radish radijs
banana banaan lettuce sla
pear peer tomato tomaat
strawberry aardbei onion ui
raspberry framboos meat vlees (n)
cherry kers veal kalfsvlees (n)
lime limoen lamb lam (n)
lemon citroen beef rundvlees (n)
orange sinaasappel ham ham
peach perzik pork varkensvlees (n)
grapes druif bacon bacon
vegetables groente sausage worst
cauliflower bloemkool poultry pluimvee (n)
bean boon duck eend
pea erwt goose gans
cucumber komkommer chicken kip
carrot wortel, peen turkey kalkoen
potato aardappel fish vis

The National Anthem of the Netherlands: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe
By Marnix van St. Aldegonde (2 stanzas out of 15)

Wilhelmus van Nassouwe ben ik van Duitsen bloed
den vaderland getrouwe blijf ik tot in den dood.
Een Prinse van Oranje ben ik, vrij onverveerd,
den Koning van Hispanje heb ik altijd geëerd.

Mijn schild ende betrouwen zijt Gij, o God mijn Heer,
op U zo wil ik bouwen, verlaat mij nimmermeer.
Dat ik doch vroom mag blijven, uw dienaar t'aller stond,
de tirannie verdrijven die mij mijn hert doorwondt.

William of Nassau am I, of Dutch blood;
True to the fatherland I remain until death.
Prince of Orange am I, free and fearless.
To the King of Spain I have always given honour.
You, my God and Lord, are my shield, on You I rely.
On You I will build; never leave me,
So that I may remain pious, your servant at all moments,
Dispelling the tyranny that wounds my heart.

The National Anthem of Belgium: De Brabançonne
By Alexandre Dechet, 1830

O dierbaar België
O heilig land der vaad'ren
Onze ziel en ons hart zijn u gewijd.
Aanvaard ons hart en het bloed van onze adren,
Wees ons doel in arbeid en in strijd.
Bloei, o land, in eendracht niet te breken;
Wees immer u zelf en ongeknecht,
Het woord getrouw, dat ge onbevreesd moogt spreken:
Voor Vorst, voor Vrijheid en voor Recht. (x3)

O beloved Belgium,
sacred land of our fathers,
Our heart and soul are dedicated to you.
Our strength and the blood of our veins we offer,
Be our goal, in work and battle.
Prosper, O country, in unbreakable unity,
Always be yourself and free.
Trust in the word that, undaunted, you can speak:
For King, for Freedom and for Law. (x3)


Go on to Dutch III


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