French Verb Conjugations: Be and Have

How to conjugate être and avoir in French, with pronunciation

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French Verb Conjugations: To Be & To Have / Être & Avoir Flashcards Exercises

Present tense of être /ɛtʀ/ - to be
I am je suis /ʒə sɥi/ We are nous sommes /nu sɔm/
You are tu es /ty ɛ/ You are vous êtes /vu zɛt/
He is
She is
One is
il est
elle est
on est
/il ɛ/
/ɛl ɛ/
/ɔ̃ nɛ/
They are
They are
ils sont
elles sont
/il sɔ̃/
/ɛl sɔ̃/

Past tense of être - to be
I was j'étais /ʒetɛ/ We were nous étions /nu zetjɔ̃/
You were tu étais /tu etɛ/ You were vous étiez /vu zetje/
He was
She was
One was
il était
elle était
on était
/il etɛ/
/ɛl etɛ/
/ɔ̃ netɛ/
They were
They were
ils étaient
elles étaient
/il zetɛ/
/ɛl zetɛ/

Je and any verb form that starts with a vowel (or silent h) combine together for ease of pronunciation.

Future Tense of être - to be
I will be je serai /ʒə səʀe/ We will be nous serons /nu səʀɔ̃/
You will be tu seras /ty səʀa/ You will be vous serez /vu səʀe/
He will be
She will be
One will be
il sera
elle sera
on sera
/il səʀa/
/ɛl səʀa/
/ɔ̃ səʀa/
They will be
They will be
ils seront
elles seront
/il səʀɔ̃/
/ɛl səʀɔ̃/

Present tense of avoir /avwaʀ/ - to have
I have j'ai /ʒe/ We have nous avons /nu zavɔ̃/
You have tu as /ty ɑ/ You have vous avez /vu zave/
He has
She has
One has
il a
elle a
on a
/il ɑ/
/ɛl ɑ/
/ɔ̃ nɑ/
They have
They have
ils ont
elles ont
/il zɔ̃/
/ɛl zɔ̃/

Past tense of avoir - to have
I had j'avais /ʒavɛ/ We had nous avions /nu zavjɔ̃/
You had tu avais /ty avɛ/ You had vous aviez /vu zavje/
He had
She had
One had
il avait
elle avait
on avait
/il avɛ/
/ɛl avɛ/
/ɔ̃ navɛ/
They had ils avaient
elles avaient
/il zavɛ/
/ɛl zavɛ/

Future tense of avoir - to have
I will have j'aurai /ʒoʀe/ We will have nous aurons /nu zoʀɔ̃/
You will have tu auras /ty oʀɑ/ You will have vous aurez /vu zoʀe/
He will have
She will have
One will have
il aura
elle aura
on aura
/il oʀa/
/ɛl oʀa/
/ɔ̃ noʀa/
They will have
They will have
ils auront
elles auront
/il zoʀɔ̃/
/ɛl zoʀɔ̃/


In informal French, the tu forms of verbs that begin with a vowel contract with the pronoun: tu es = t'es /tɛ/, tu as = t'as /tɑ/, etc. In addition, it is very common to use on (plus 3rd person singular conjugation) to mean we instead of nous.


Common Expressions with avoir and Etre

Avoir and être are used in many common and idiomatic expressions that should be memorized:

avoir chaud /avwaʀ ʃo/ to be hot être de retour /ɛtʀ də ʀətuʀ/ to be back
avoir froid /avwaʀ fʀwa/ to be cold être en retard /ɛtʀ ɑ̃ ʀətaʀ/ to be late
avoir peur /avwaʀ pœʀ/ to be afraid être en avance /ɛtʀ ɑ̃ navɑ̃s/ to be early
avoir raison /avwaʀ ʀɛzɔ̃/ to be right être d'accord /ɛtʀ dakɔʀ/ to be in agreement
avoir tort /avwaʀ tɔʀ/ to be wrong être sur le point de /ɛtʀ syʀ lə pwɛ̃ də/ to be about to
avoir faim /avwaʀ fɛ̃/ to be hungry être en train de /ɛtʀ ɑ̃ tʀɛ̃ də/ to be in the act of
avoir soif /avwaʀ swaf/ to be thirsty être enrhumée /ɛtʀ ɑ̃ʀyme/ to have a cold
avoir sommeil /avwaʀ sɔmɛj/ to be sleepy nous + être (un jour) /ɛtʀ œ̃̃̃ ʒuʀ/ to be (a day)
avoir honte /avwaʀ ʽɔ̃t/ to be ashamed      
avoir besoin de /avwaʀ bəzwɛ̃ də/ to need      
avoir l'air de /avwaʀ ɛʀ də/ to look like, seem      
avoir l'intention de /avwaʀ ɛ̃tɑ̃sjɔ̃/ to intend to      
avoir envie de /avwaʀ ɑ̃vi də/ to feel like      
avoir de la chance /avwaʀ də la ʃɑ̃s/ to be lucky      

J'ai froid.  I'm cold.
Tu avais raison.  You were right.
Il aura sommeil ce soir.  He will be tired tonight.
Elle a de la chance !  She's lucky!
Nous aurons faim plus tard.  We will be hungry later.
Vous aviez tort.  You were wrong.
Ils ont chaud.  They are hot.
Elles avaient peur hier.  They were afraid yesterday.
Je suis en retard!  I'm late!
Tu étais en avance.  You were early.
Elle sera d'accord.  She will agree.
Nous sommes lundi.  It is Monday.
Vous étiez enrhumé.  You had a cold.
Ils seront en train d'étudier.  They will be (in the act of) studying.
Elles étaient sur le point de partir.  They were about to leave.
On est de retour.  We/you/they/the people are back.



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