French & German Comparative Tutorial III: Learn Two Languages Simultaneously
 


Rocket French | Rocket German


Common Verbs

English French German English French German
to answer répondre à antworten to mean vouloir dire bedeuten
to ask demander fragen to meet recontrer treffen
to be être sein to need avoir besoin de brauchen
to be (located) se trouver liegen to open ouvrir öffnen
to be able to, can pouvoir können to order commander bestellen
to be called s'appeler heißen to pay payer bezahlen
to become devenir werden to play, act jouer spielen
to begin commencer beginnen to pull tirer ziehen
to bring amener, apporter bringen to push pousser drücken
to buy acheter kaufen to put, set mettre setzen
to call appeler rufen to rain pleuvoir regnen
to close fermer schließen to read lire lesen
to come venir kommen to run courir laufen
to cost coûter kosten to say, tell dire sagen
to die mourir sterben to see voir sehen
to drink boire trinken to send envoyer senden
to drive, go, travel conduire, aller fahren to shine briller scheinen
to eat manger essen to show, indicate montrer zeigen
to fall tomber fallen to sing chanter singen
to find trouver finden to sit être assis sitzen
to fly voler fliegen to sleep dormir schlafen
to forbid interdire verbieten to speak parler sprechen
to forget oublier vergessen to spend (time) passer verbringen
to get, receive recevoir bekommen, empfangen to stand être debout stehen
to give donner geben to stay, remain rester bleiben
to go aller gehen to swim nager schwimmen
to have avoir haben to take prendre nehmen
to have to, must devoir müssen to thank remercier danken
to hear entendre hören to think penser denken
to help aider helfen to throw (away) jeter werfen
to know (facts) savoir wissen to travel voyager reisen
to know (people) connaître kennen to try (out) essayer probieren
to leave quitter verlassen to understand comprendre verstehen
to let laisser lassen to visit visiter, rendre visite à besuchen
to listen to écouter zuhören to wait attendre warten
to live (be alive) vivre leben to want vouloir wollen
to live (in) habiter wohnen to wash laver waschen
to look for, search chercher suchen to wear porter tragen
to lose perdre verlieren to win gagner gewinnen
to love aimer lieben to work travailler arbeiten
to make, do faire machen, tun to write écrire schreiben

Many of the most commonly used verbs in both French and German are irregular.


Regular Verbs: Present and Past Tense

In French, there are three types of verbs, depending on their endings: -er, -ir and -re. All verbs in German end in -en or -n. To conjugate verbs in the present tense, remove the endings and add the following new endings. The present tense in French and German can translate as either the simple present, the present continuous, or the emphatic present, i.e. I run, I am running, I do run.

Present
French
 
German
 
-er
-ir
-re
 
-en / -n
je / j' -e -is -s ich -e
tu -es -is -s du -st
il/elle -e -it - er/sie/es -t
nous -ons -issons -ons wir -en
vous -ez -issez -ez ihr -t
ils/elles -ent -issent -ent sie/Sie -en

For French verbs that begin with a vowel, such as apprendre, je becomes j' so that subject and verb can be connected as one word (to faciliate pronunciation): j'apprends. It is also common for tu to become t' in informal speech, but not in formal writing: t'apprends. In informal German, the -e of the ich form is often left off as well so that there is one fewer syllable: ich hab'

For the past (imperfect) tense, all regular French verbs use the same endings. All regular German verbs use the same endings as well. This past tense translates as either the simple past, the past continuous, or used to + infinitive, i.e. I ran, I was running, I used to run. (There is another past tense in French, called the passé simple - simple past, that is rarely used in speech, but still commonly used in literature. It will appear later.)

Past
French
 
German
je / j' -ais ich -te
tu -ais du -test
il/elle -ait er/sie/es -te
nous -ions wir -ten
vous -iez ihr -tet
ils/elles -aient sie/Sie -ten

Spelling Changes in the Present Tense

There are several spelling changes in conjugated verbs in the present tense, in both French and German. Usually these changes are made to correlate with the pronunciation of the verb.

French: Many verbs that end in -ir are conjugated with a different set of endings than those above, while some other -ir verbs are conjugated as if they were -er verbs. Verb stems that end in -c must use a cedilla (ç) under the c to make it soft in the nous form. Verb stems ending in -ge lose the final e before the endings in the nous and vous forms. Some verbs add an accent grave to an e (è) or change an accent aigu to an accent grave before the ending; verbs ending in -yer change the y to i; and some verbs double their consonant in all forms but nous and vous.

  partir offrir commencer manger espérer payer appeler
je / j' pars offre commence mange espère paie appelle
tu pars offres commences manges espères paies appelles
il/elle part offre commence mange espère paie appelle
nous partons offrons commençons mangions espérons payons appelons
vous partez offrez commencez mangiez espérez payez appelez
ils/elles partent offrent commencent mangent espèrent paient appellent

German: For the du and er/sie/es forms only, some verbs change their stem vowel: a to ä, au to äu, e to ie, e to i. Verb stems ending in -d or -t add an extra -e before the regular endings for the du, er/sie/es and ihr forms. Verb stems ending in s, z, or ß only add -t for the du form. Verbs that end in -n instead of -en only add -n for the wir and sie/Sie forms. Verbs that end in -eln or -ern only -n for the wir and sie/Sie forms and they can drop the e before -ln or -rn in the ich form.

  fahren laufen sehen geben arbeiten tanzen tun sammeln
ich fahre laufe sehe gebe arbeite tanze tue sammle
du fährst läufst siehst gibst arbeitest tanzt tust sammelst
er/sie/es fährt läuft sieht gibt arbeitet tanzt tut sammelt
wir fahren laufen sehen geben arbeiten tanzen tun sammeln
ihr fahrt lauft seht gebt arbeitet tanzt tut sammelt
sie/Sie fahren laufen sehen geben arbeiten tanzen tun sammeln

Irregular Verb Stems in the Past Tense

French: Only one French verb is irregular in the past (imperfect) tense: être. Its stem becomes ét- for the past tense, but it still uses the regular past tense endings. In addition, some of the spelling changes in the present tense also occur in the past tense (for verb stems ending in -c and -g).

  être - to be commencer - to begin manger - to eat
je / j' étais commençais mangeais
tu étais commençais mangeais
il/elle était commençait mangeait
nous étions commencions mangions
vous étiez commenciez mangiez
ils/elles étaient commençaient mangeaient

German: There are several irregular past stems in German. Similar to the irregular verbs in English, some of these stems cannot be predicted and must be memorized. These irregular verb stems also use slightly different endings than the regular verbs.

Irregular Endings in Past Tense

ich -
du -st
er/sie/es -
wir -en
ihr -t
sie/Sie -en

Irregular Stems in the Past Tense

Infinitive Past Stem   Infinitive Past Stem  
beginnen begann begin schieben schob push
bekommen bekam get, receive schlafen schlief sleep
bleiben blieb remain schlagen schlug hit
brechen brach break schließen schloss shut
empfehlen empfahl recommend schneiden schnitt cut
essen eat schreiben schrieb write
fahren fuhr drive, go, travel schreien schrie cry
fallen fiel fall schwimmen schwamm swim
fangen fing catch sehen sah see
finden fand find sein war be
fliegen flog fly singen sang sing
fressen fraß eat (of animals) sinken sank sink
frieren fror freeze sitzen saß sit
gebären gebar be born sprechen sprach speak
geben gab give springen sprang jump
gehen ging go stehen stand stand
geschehen geschah happen stehlen stahl steal
gewinnen gewann win steigen stieg climb
halten hielt hold sterben starb die
hängen hing hang, suspend tragen trug wear
heben hob lift treffen traf meet
heißen hiess be called treiben trieb play sports
helfen half help treten trat step
kommen kam come trinken trank drink
lassen liess let, allow tun tat do
laufen lief run verbieten verbot forbid
leiden litt suffer vergessen vergaß forget
leihen lieh lend verlassen verliess leave
lesen las read verlieren verlor lose
liegen lag recline versprechen versprach promise
lügen log lie, fib verstehen verstand understand
nehmen nahm take verzeihen verzieh forgive
reiten ritt ride (horseback) wachsen wuchs grow
riechen roch smell waschen wusch wash
rufen rief call werfen warf throw
scheinen schien shine ziehen zog pull

Haben, werden, wissen, and a group of verbs called the "mixed verbs" all have irregular stems in the past tense, but they still use the regular endings!

Irregular Stems + Regular Endings in the Past Tense
haben werden wissen bringen denken kennen brennen nennen rennen wenden
ich hatte wurde wußte brachte dachte kannte brannte nannte rannte wandte
du hattest wurdest wußtest brachtest dachtest kanntest branntest nanntest ranntest wandtest
er/sie/es hatte wurde wußte brachte dachte kannte brannte nannte rannte wandte
wir hatten wurden wußten brachten dachten kannten brannten nannten rannten wandten
ihr hattet wurdet wußtet brachtet dachtet kanntet branntet nanntet ranntet wandtet
sie/Sie hatten wurden wußten brachten dachten kannten brannten nannten rannten wandten

Some of the modal verbs in German follow the rules for regular stem + regular ending, while others use an irregular stem + regular ending.

Past Tense of Modals
können müssen dürfen sollen wollen mögen
ich konnte mußte durfte sollte wollte mochte
du konntest mußtest durftest solltest wolltest mochtest
er, sie, es konnte mußte durfte sollte wollte mochte
wir konnten mußten durften sollten wollten mochten
ihr konntet mußtet durftet solltet wolltet mochtet
sie konnten mußten durften sollten wollten mochten

Pronominal / Reflexive Verbs

Pronominal verbs are also called reflexive verbs, and they require an extra pronoun in the conjugations. These verbs reflect actions that are done to the subject (the subject and object refer to the same person), so many of them involve the body. Other verbs are considered pronominal simply for grammatical reasons. Reflexive verbs are rare in English, so many times the reflexive pronoun in French or German is not translated into English. For verbs that show reciprocal actions, English tends to use each other.

English French German
myself me mich / mir
yourself te dich / dir
himself/herself/itself se sich
ourselves nous uns
yourselves vous euch
themselves se sich

The main difference between the languages is that French places the reflexive pronoun BEFORE the conjugated verb, while German places it AFTER.

Il se lave. / Er wäscht sich. He washes (himself).
Je me réjouis de te voir. / Ich freue mich, dich su zehen. I'm happy to see you.

Another difference is the use of dative reflexive pronouns in German (mir and dir instead of mich and dich). If a sentence already has an object in the accusative case (a direct object), then the reflexive pronoun in German must be in the dative case (an indirect object).

Je me lave les cheveux. / Ich wasche mir die Haare. I'm washing my hair.

Reflexive Verbs in French & German
(Not all verbs that are reflexive in French are reflexive in German and vice versa!)

English French German English French German
to ask about, get info se renseigner sich erkundigen nach to get undressed se déshabiller sich ausziehen
to be afraid of avoir peur de sich fürchten vor to get up se lever aufstehen
to be bored s'ennuyer sich langweilen to get upset, annoyed s'énerver sich aufregen
to be called s'appeler heißen to get used to s'habituer à sich gewöhnen an
to be interested in s'intéresser à sich interessieren für to have a good time s'amuser sich vergnügen
to be pleased se réjouir sich freuen to hurry se dépêcher sich beeilen
to break (body part) se casser sich brechen to imagine s'imaginer sich vorstellen
to catch a cold prendre froid sich erkälten to lie down s'allonger sich hinlegen
to complain about se plaindre sich beklagen über to relax se détendre sich erholen
to fall asleep s'endormir einschlafen to remember se souvenir de sich erinnern an
to fall in love with tomber amoureux de sich verlieben in to rest se reposer sich ausruhen
to feel (well) se sentir (bien) sich (wohl) fühlen to shave se raser sich rasieren
to get along s'entendre avec sich verstehen mit to sit down s'asseoir sich setzen
to get angry se fâcher sich ärgern to take care of s'occuper de sich kümmern um
to get dressed s'habiller sich anziehen to train/practice s'entraîner trainieren
to get hurt se faire mal sich verletzen to wake up se réveiller aufwachen
to get married se marier heiraten to wash up se laver sich waschen

On / Man

To express an unspecific agent (such as one, you, they, or people in general in English), use on in French and man in German as the subject pronoun. These subjects can also be used as a way to avoid the passive mood, though it is much more common in French than in German.

On parle espagnol. / Man spricht Spanisch. We speak Spanish. / Spanish is spoken.


Plaire / Gefallen & Manquer / Fehlen

Plaire and gefallen mean to like (literally: to be pleasing to) and manquer and fehlen mean to miss (literally: to be missing to), but the word order is the opposite of English. The English subject becomes the indirect object in French and German, while the English object becomes the subject. Remember that French pronouns are placed BEFORE the conjugated verb, while they are placed AFTER in German.

Ça me plaît. / Das gefällt mir. I like it. (literally: It is pleasing to me.)
Ses devoirs ne lui plaisent pas ? / Die Hausaufgaben gefallen ihm nicht? He doesn't like his homework? (literally: His homework doesn't please him?)
Tu me manques. / Du fehlst mir. I miss you. (literally: You are missing to me.)
Ils me manquent. / Sie fehlen mir. I miss them. (literally: They are missing to me.)


Separable & Inseparable Prefixes in German

A lot of German verbs include prefixes, which may or may not separate from the base infinitive when conjugated. Inseparable prefixes are quite easy to deal with because they always remain attached to the root of the verb. They are essentially unstressed syllables. It is only in the perfect tenses that you need to be aware of inseparable prefixes.

Separable prefixes, on the other hand, have different rules for verb tenses and subordinating clauses, which will be expanded on below. The main idea is that the separable prefix is removed from the root verb and placed at the very end of the clause or sentence in the present tense in simple sentences. This is somewhat similar to phrasal verbs in English that include a preposition or adverb, such as take out, look over, put down, etc. Most separable prefixes in German are also prepositions, so they should look familiar. (Separable prefix verbs in German don't always translate as phrasal verbs in English though.)

Separable Prefixes   Inseparable Prefixes
ab- mit-   be-
an- nach-   emp-
auf- vor-   ent-
aus- vorbei-   er-
bei- weg-   ge-
ein- zu-   miss-
fern- zurück-   ver-
los- zusammen-   zer-

German Verbs with Separable Prefixes

abholen to pick up ausmachen to turn off
abräumen to clear (the table) aussehen to look like, appear
abtrocknen to dry (dishes) austragen to deliver
abwischen to wipe clean auswandern to emigrate
anfangen to begin ausziehen to take off clothes
ankommen to arrive einkaufen to shop
anmachen to turn on einladen to invite
anrufen to call up einpacken to pack up
anschauen to look at einschlafen to fall asleep
ansehen to look at, watch einsteigen to board
anziehen to put on clothes fernsehen to watch TV
anzünden to light (candles) mitkommen to come with
aufhören to stop mitnehmen to take with
aufmachen to open vorbeikommen to come by
aufräumen to tidy up (clothes) vorschlagen to suggest
aufstehen to get up vorstellen to introduce
aufwachen to wake up weggehen to go away
aufwischen to mop up wegstellen to put away
ausfüllen to fill in (the blanks) zuhören to listen to
ausgeben to spend zumachen to close
ausgehen to go out zurückkommen to come back
ausleeren to empty zusehen to observe

Sie macht das Fenster auf. She opens the window.
Er zieht sich an. He gets dressed.

Unter and über can function as separable prefixes, but they are much more commonly used as inseparable prefixes. When prefixes are stressed, they are separable; when they are not stressed, they are inseparable. The stress on the following verbs in not on the prefix, so they are all inseparable: unterhalten - to entertain, unternehmen - to undertake, überholen - to overtake, and übersetzen - to translate.


Imperative / Commands

Forming commands is quite easy if you remember the present tense conjugations of verbs. Only a few of the forms change for the command (in blue). Negative commands follow the regular word order rules of placing ne...pas around the verb in French (or just pas after in informal French) and nicht after the verb in German.

  French German English
tu / du Reste Bleib! Stay! (informal / singular)
nous / wir Restons Bleiben wir! Let's stay!
vous / ihr Restez Bleibt! Stay! (plural)
vous / Sie Restez Bleiben Sie! Stay! (formal)

The informal/singular you loses its ending for the command in both languages (no -s and no -st), however, the -s reappears in French with object pronouns (va becomes vas-y). German verbs that require an umlaut in the informal you form do not use it in the command (laüfst becames lauf!), but verbs that change e to i or ie do use this form in the command (gibst becomes gib!). The we/let's and formal you add wir and Sie, respectively, after the verb in German. Notice that all German commands are written with exclamation points, and French requires a hypen between the command and object.

Prend-le ! / Nimm es! Take it!
Dis-moi ! / Sag mir! Tell me!
Ne parlez pas ! / Sprecht nicht! Don't speak!

Irregular Commands

 
French
German
  être - to be avoir - to have savoir - to know (facts) sein - to be
tu / du Sois Aie Sache Sei!
nous / wir Soyons Ayons Sachons Seien wir!
vous / ihr Soyez Ayez Sachez Seiet!
vous / Sie Soyez Ayez Sachez Seien Sie!

Pronominal verbs as commands have the same verb + pronoun word order if they are affirmative; but in the negative, French moves the pronoun before the verb, while German keeps it after.

Asseyons-nous ! / Setzen wir uns! Let's sit down!
Ne vous fâchez pas ! / Ärgern Sie sich nicht! Don't get angry!


Subordinating Conjunctions

A subordinating conjunction that begins a dependent clause depends on the rest of the sentence to make sense. For example, "because I was sick" does not make sense on its own and it requires another clause (the independent clause): I went home because I was sick. Notice that "I went home" can exist on its own, which is why it is called independent. In French and German, just as in English, either the independent or dependent clause can begin the sentence; however, the word order must change in German.

For sentences of type 1) independent clause, + subordinating conjunction + dependent clause: The conjugated verb in the dependent clause goes to the very end - even after the infinitive.
For sentences of type 2) subordinating conjunction + dependent clause, + independent clause: The conjugated verb is first in the independent clause, followed by the subject.

1. Sie geht in die Stadt, weil sie ein Geschenk kaufen will. She's going into the city because she wants to buy a present.
2. Weil sie ein Geschenk kaufen will, geht sie in die Stadt. Because she wants to buy a present, she's going into the city.

Verbs with separable prefixes reattach the prefix when they are in dependent clauses:

Er kommt früh nach Hause zurück. He'll come back home early. [independent clause]
Ich denke, dass er früh nach Hause zurückkommt.
I think that he'll come back home early. [dependent clause]


Verbs: Present Perfect / Past Perfect Tenses

The perfect tenses are compound tenses, meaning there are two parts to the verb: auxiliary verb + past participle. Most verbs use avoir or haben, but some use être or sein as the auxiliary verb. This tense translates literally as has/have + past participle for the present perfect and had + past participle for the past perfect, though it can also be translated with the simple past tense. The perfect tenses are common in conversation in French and German, while the simple past is slightly more common in writing. For the present perfect tense, you will need to use the present tense forms of the auxiliary verbs; and for the past perfect tense, you will need to use the simple past forms of the auxiliary verbs.

Forming Past Participles

French
infinitive - past part.
German
infinitive - past part.
-er verbs stem + é aimer - aimé regular verbs ge + stem + t machen - gemacht
-ir verbs stem + i choisir - choisi ending in -ieren stem + t studieren - studiert
-re verbs stem + u vendre - vendu separable prefixes stem + t besuchen - besucht
      inseparable prefixes prefix + ge + stem + t abholen - abgeholt

Remember for German stems ending in -d or -t, you need to add -et as the ending for ease of pronunciation: arbeiten - gearbeitet. There are many more irregular past participles in German than in French, and you usually just have to memorize them. They could involve a stem vowel change and/or ending -en instead of -t.

Irregular Past Participles that take Avoir in French

to be être été to permit permettre permis
to be able to pouvoir pu to promise promettre promis
to believe croire cru to put mettre mis
to do, make faire fait to read lire lu
to have avoir eu to receive recevoir reçu
to have to devoir to see voir vu
to know connaître connu to surprise surprendre surpris
to know savoir su to take prendre pris
to laugh rire ri to tell dire dit
to learn apprendre appris to understand comprendre compris
to offer offrir offert to want vouloir voulu
to open ouvrir ouvert to write écrire écrit

Irregular Past Participles that take Haben in German

ask bitten gebeten give geben gegeben see sehen gesehen
be called heißen geheißen hang, suspend hängen gehangen shine scheinen geschienen
be silent schweigen geschwiegen help helfen geholfen shut schließen geschlossen
begin beginnen begonnen hold halten gehalten sing singen gesungen
begin anfangen angefangen invite einladen eingeladen sit sitzen gesessen
bite beissen gebissen know (facts) wissen gewußt sleep schlafen geschlafen
break brechen gebrochen know (people) kennen gekannt smell riechen gerochen
bring bringen gebracht leave verlassen verlassen sound klingen geklungen
burn brennen gebrannt lend leihen geliehen speak sprechen gesprochen
call rufen gerufen let, allow lassen gelassen stand stehen gestanden
call, name nennen genannt lie, fib lügen gelogen steal stehlen gestohlen
cry schreien geschrieen lift heben gehoben suffer leiden gelitten
cut schneiden geschnitten lose verlieren verloren swing schwingen geschwungen
do tun getan meet treffen getroffen take nehmen genommen
drink trinken getrunken order, command befehlen befohlen tear reissen gerissen
eat essen gegessen pour, water gießen gegossen think denken gedacht
eat (of animals) fressen gefressen promise versprechen versprochen throw werfen geworfen
find finden gefunden pull ziehen gezogen tie binden gebunden
forbid verbieten verboten push schieben geschoben turn wenden gewandt
forget vergessen vergessen reach greifen gegriffen understand verstehen verstanden
forgive verzeihen verziehen read lesen gelesen wash waschen gewaschen
freeze frieren gefroren recline liegen gelegen wear tragen getragen
get up aufstehen aufgestanden recommend empfehlen empfohlen win gewinnen gewonnen
get, receive bekommen bekommen run rennen gerannt write schreiben geschrieben

Word Order: French follows the same word order as English, the past participle directly follows the auxiliary verb; but German places the past participle at the end of the clause or sentence. In the negative, French places ne...pas around the auxiliary verb (or just pas after in informal French) and German generally places nicht after the auxiliary.

Auxiliary Verb: Verbs that indicate motion or a change of condition AND do not take a direct object use être / sein as an auxiliary verb. If the verb takes a direct object, then it must use avoir / haben as an auxiliary verb, so it is possible that one verb can use either auxiliary. In French, verbs that use être must make the past participle agree with the subject in gender and number, i.e. add an -e for feminine, -s for masculine plural, and -es for feminine plural.

Etre Verbs and their Past Participles in French
Irregulars are highlighted.

to arrive arriver arrivé(e)(s)
to be born naître né(e)(s)
to become devenir devenu(e)(s)
to come venir venu(e)(s)
to come back revenir revenu(e)(s)
to die mourir mort(e)(s)
to enter entrer entré(e)(s)
to fall tomber tombé(e)(s)
to go aller allé(e)(s)
to go by, pass passer passé(e)(s)
to go down descendre descendu(e)(s)
to go out sortir sorti(e)(s)
to go up monter monté(e)(s)
to leave partir parti(e)(s)
to return home rentrer rentré(e)(s)
to stay rester resté(e)(s)

Sein Verbs and their Past Participles in German
Irregulars are highlighted.

be sein gewesen hike wandern gewandert
be born gebären geboren jog joggen gejoggt
become werden geworden jump springen gesprungen
come kommen gekommen remain bleiben geblieben
die sterben gestorben ride (horseback) reiten geritten
drive, go, travel fahren gefahren run rennen gerannt
fall fallen gefallen run laufen gelaufen
fly fliegen geflogen sink sinken gesunken
follow folgen gefolgt step treten getreten
go gehen gegangen succeed gelingen gelungen
grow wachsen gewachsen swim schwimmen geschwommen
happen geschehen geschehen travel reisen gereist
happen passieren passiert wake up aufwachen aufgewacht

Pronominal Verbs in Perfect Tenses: All pronominal verbs use être as the auxiliary verb in French, but all pronominal verbs use haben as the auxiliary verb in German.

Double Infinitives: When modal verbs are used in the perfect tenses in German, their past participles are only required when there is no other verb. If there is another verb, then that verb and the infinitive of the modal (instead of its past participle) are placed at the end of the sentence, called the double infinitive.


Verbs of Senses

Verbs that involve the senses (and a few others) can be followed directly by another infinitive in French and German, whereas in English, the gerund (-ing form) is used. French verbs include: entendre - to hear, voir - to see, etc. German verbs include: lassen - to let, helfen - to help, hören - to hear, sehen - to see, fühlen - to feel, and spüren - to feel/sense.

J'entends les oiseaux chanter. / Ich höre die Vögel singen. I hear birds singing.

In addition, these German verbs act as modals in the perfect tenses and form double infinitives instead of using their past participles when there is another verb involved.

J'ai entendu les oiseaux chanter. / Ich habe die Vögel singen hören. I heard the birds singing.


House & Furniture

 

English French German English French German
alarm clock le réveil der Wecker hearth la cheminée der Kamin
apartment l'appartement (m) die Wohnung hook le crochet der Haken
armchair le fauteuil der Sessel hot plates la table de cuisson die Herdplatte
attic le grenier der Dachboden house la maison das Haus
balcony le balcon der Balkon iron le fer á repasser das Bügeleisen
basement le sous-sol der Keller ironing board la table à repasser das Bügelbrett
basket la corbeille der Abfalleimer key la clef der Schlüssel
bathroom le bain das Badezimmer kitchen la cuisine die Küche
bathtub la baignoire die Badewanne ladder l'échelle (f) die Leiter
bed le lit das Bett lamp la lampe die Lampe
bedroom la chambre das Schlafzimmer laundry basket le panier à linge der Wäschekorb
blanket la couverture die Bettdecke lawn la pelouse der Rasen
blinds le store die Rollgardine light bulb l'ampoule die Glühbirne
bookcase la bibliothèque das Bücherregal living room le living / le salon das Wohnzimmer
box la boîte die Kiste lock la serrure das Schloss
broom le balai der Besen mailbox la boîte á lettres der Briefkasten
bucket le seau der Eimer matches des allumettes die Streichhölzer
camcorder la caméra der Camcorder mattress le matelas die Matraze
camera l'appareil-photo (m) der Fotoapparat medicine cabinet l'armoire de toilette (f) der Badezimmerschrank
candle la bougie die Kerze microwave oven le four á micro-ondes der Mikrowellenherd
carpet le tapis der Teppich mirror le miroir der Spiegel
cassette la cassette die Kassette nightstand la table de nuit der Nachttisch
CD player la lecteur de CD der CD-Player oven le four der Ofen
ceiling le plafond die Decke pantry le garde-manger die Speisekammer
chair la chaise der Stuhl picture le tableau / le cadre das Bild / der Bilderrahmen
chandelier le lustre der Kronleuchter pillow l'oreiller (m) das Kissen
chimney la cheminée das Schornstein pipe (water) le tuyau die Röhre
clock la pendule die Uhr poker (fire) le tisonnier das Schüreisen
closet le placard die Garderobe radiator le radiateur der Heizkörper
closet (clothes) l'armoire (f) der Kleiderschrank radio le radio das Radio
clothes dryer le sèche-linge der Wäschetrockner record le disque die Schallplatte
coffee maker la cafetière die Kaffeemaschine refrigerator le réfrigerateur der Kühlschrank
coffee table la table basse der Couchtisch roof le toit das Dach
computer l'ordinateur (m) der Computer room la pièce das Zimmer
cooker la cuisinière der Herd rug le tapis der Teppich
cooler la glacière die Kühlbox scale (bathroom) le pèse-personne die Personenwaage
corner le coin die Ecke sheet le drap das Bettuch
credenza le buffet die Anrichte shelf l'étagère das Regal
cupboard le placard / l'armoire (f) der Schrank shovel la pelle die Schaufel
curtain le rideau der Vorhang shower la douche die Dusche
cushion le coussin das Kissen sink l'évier die Spüle
desk le bureau der Schreibtisch sink (bathroom) le lavabo das Waschbecken
dining room la salle á manger das Eßzimmer sofa le canapé das Sofa
dish soap le liquide vaisselle das Spülmittel sponge l'éponge (f) der Schwamm
dishwasher le lave-vaisselle die Spülmaschine stairs l'escalier (m) die Treppe
door la porte die Tür steps les marches die Stufen
doorbell la sonnette die Klingel stereo la chaîne hi-fi die Stereoanlage
drawer le tiroir der Schublade story (floor) l'étage (m) das Stockwerk
dresser la commode die Kommode stove le poêle der Herd
driveway l'allée die Auffahrt study le cabinet de travail das Arbeitszimmer
drying rack le séchoir à linge der Wäscheständer switch le commutateur der Schalter
dustpan la pelle die Kehrschaufel table la table der Tisch
DVD player le lecteur de DVD der DVD-Player tap (faucet) le robinet der Hahn
fence le portail / clôture der Zaun telephone le téléphone das Telefon
film la pellicule der Film television la télévision der Fernseher
flashlight la lampe de poche die Taschenlampe toaster le grille-pain der Toaster
floor la plancher der Boden toilet (WC) le cabinet die Toilette
flower la fleur die Blume towel la serviette das Handtuch
food processor le robot ménager die Küchenmaschine toy box le coffre à jouets die Spielzeugkiste
freezer la congélateur die Gefriertruhe vacuum cleaner l'aspirateur (m) der Staubsauger
front walk la promenade der Gehweg vase le vase die Vase
fryer la friteuse die Fritteuse VCR la magnétoscope der Videokassettenrekorder
furniture les meubles (m) die Möbel (pl.) wall (house) le mur die Mauer
garage le garage die Garage wall (room) la paroi die Wand
garbage can la poubelle der Abfalleimer washing machine le lave-linge die Waschmaschine
garden le jardin der Garten window la fenêtre das Fenster
ground floor le rez-de-chaussée das Erdgeschoss yard le jardin der Hof

 


Buildings & Materials

 

English French German English French German
airport l'aéroport der Flughafen port le port der Hafen
bakery la boulangerie die Bäckerei prison la prison das Gefängnis
bank le banc die Bank restaurant le restaurant das Restaurant
bar le bar die Bar road (highway) le chemin / la route dis Landstrasse
barn le grange die Scheune school l'école die Schule
barracks la caserne dis Kaserne sidewalk le trottoir der Bürgersteig
bench le banc die Bank square la place der Platz
bridge le pont die Brücke stable l'étable der Stall
bookstore le librairie die Buchhandlung stadium le stade das Stadion
building le bâtiment das Gebäude stop sign le signe d'arrête das Haltezeichen
butcher's la boucherie die Metzgerei store le magasin der Laden
castle le château das Schloss street la rue die Strasse
cathedral la cathédrale die Kathedrale suburb la banlieue die Vorstadt
cemetery le cimetière der Friedhof theater le théâtre das Theater
church l'église die Kirche tower la tour der Turm
cinema le cinéma das Kino town la ville die Stadt
consulate le consulat das Konsulat town hall la mairie die Rathaus
corner le coin die Ecke traffic light le feu de circulation die Ampel
courtyard la cour der Hof university l'université die Universität
crosswalk le passage pour piétons der Ubergang village le village das Dorf
dock le bassin das Dock alloy l'alliage (m) die Legierung
dry cleaner's le pressing die Reinigung brass le laiton das Messing
embassy l'ambassade (f) die Botschaft brick la brique der Backstein
factory l'usine (f) die Fabrik cement le ciment der Zement
farm la ferme der Bauernhof chalk la craie die Kreide
fire hydrant la bouche à incendie der Hydrant clay l'argile (f) der Lehm / Ton
fountain la fontaine der Brunnen coal le charbon die Kohle
garage le garage die Garage concrete le béton der Beton
grocery store l'épicerie das Lebensmittelgeschäft copper le cuivre das Kupfer
hospital l'hôpital (m) das Krankenhaus cork le liège der Kork
hotel l'hotel das Hotel glass le verre das Glas
house la maison das Haus gold l'or (m) das Gold
hut la hutte die Hütte iron le fer das Eisen
inn l'auberge (f) das Wirtshaus lead le plomb das Blei
lane (town) la ruelle die Gasse leather le cuir das Leder
library la bibliothèque die Bibliothek lime la chaux der Kalk
market le marché der Markt marble le marbre der Marmor
ministry le ministère das Ministerium mercury le mercure das Quecksilber
monument le monument das Denkmal metal le métal das Metall
museum le musée das Museum rubber le caoutchouc der Gummi
palace le palais der Palast silver l'argent (m) das Silber
path le sentier der Pfad steel l'acier (m) der Stahl
pavement le trottoir der Bürgersteig stone la pierre der Stein
pharmacy la pharmacie die Apotheke tar le goudron der Teer
pier la jetée der Pier tin l'étain (m) das Zinn
police station le commisariat das Polizeirevier wood le bois das Holz

 


Y/ En & Da- / Wo-

Y and en are pronouns in French that mostly replace prepositional phrases. Da- and wo- in German replace the noun in a prepositional phrase. In both languages, they can only refer to things and ideas and not people.

French: Y replaces a prepositional phrase, except those beginning with the preposition de. En replaces prepositional phrases beginning with de, as well as the noun that follows a number. Y is usually translated as it, them or there, and en is usually translated as some, of them, or it. Y and en are placed before the verb in French in regular sentences, or between a conjugated verb and infinitive, or after the verb and connected to it with a hyphen in the imperative.

A quoi penses-tu ? What are you thinking about?
Je pense aux vacances. I'm thinking about vacation.
J'y pense. I'm thinking about it.

German: Da- replaces the noun in a prepositional phrase in a statement, while wo- replaces the nouns in a prepositional phrase in a question. An -r- is added before prepositions that begin with a vowel. Da- is usually translated as it or them, and wo- is usually translated as what. The prepositions are always connected to da- or wo- and written as one word with no hyphen.

Woran denkst du? What are you thinking about?
Ich denke an die Ferien.
I'm thinking about vacation.
Ich denke daran. I'm thinking about it.


 


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