Italian I Tutorial: Basic Phrases, Vocabulary and Grammar
 

If you're interested in buying books to supplement your Italian studies, I've recommended some books from Amazon. Also check out the Foreign Service Institute Italian FAST Course that I am converting to HTML. If you'd like to download the mp3s, use the DownThemAll add-on for Firefox to download all the mp3s at once instead of right-clicking on each link. Thanks to Corrado for the recordings!


1. Basic Phrases / Frasi semplici

NEW! If you'd like to study these phrases (and their pronunciations) individually, please go to Basic Italian Phrases.

Buon giorno
bwon zhor-no
Hello / Good morning/afternoon

Buona sera
bwoh-nah seh-rah
Good evening
Buona notte
bwoh-nah noht-teh
Good night
Ciao
chow
Hi / Hello / Bye (informal)
Arrivederci
ah-ree-vuh-dehr-chee
Goodbye
ArrivederLa
ah-ree-vuh-dehr-lah
Goodbye (formal)
A più tardi
ah pyoo tar-dee
See you later
A presto / A dopo
ah press-toh / ah doh-poh
See you soon
A domani
ah doh-mahn-ee
See you tomorrow
Per favore / Per piacere
pehr fah-voh-reh / pehr pee-ah-cheh-reh
Please
Grazie (mille)
graht-zee-eh (mee-leh)
Thank you (very much)
Prego
preh-goh
You're Welcome
Mi dispiace
mee dee-spyah-cheh
Sorry
Scusi / Scusa
skoo-zee / skoo-zah
Excuse me (formal / informal)
Andiamo!
on-dee-ah-mo
Let's go!
Come sta? / Come stai?
koh-meh stah / koh-meh sty
How are you? (formal / informal)
Sto bene.
stoh beh-neh
I am fine / well.
Non c'è male.
nohn cheh mah-leh
Not bad.
Abbastanza bene.
ah-bah-stahn-tsah beh-neh
Pretty good.
Così così.
koh-zee koh-zee
So so.
Sì / No
see / noh
Yes / No
Come si chiama?
koh-meh see kee-ah-mah
What's your name? (formal)
Come ti chiami?
koh-meh tee kee-ah-mee
What's your name? (informal)
Mi chiamo...
mee kee-ah-mo
My name is...
Piacere / Molto lieto.
pee-ah-cheh-reh / mohl-toh lee-eh-toh
Pleased / Nice to meet you.
Signore, Signora, Signorina
seen-yoh-reh, seen-yoh-rah, seen-yoh-reen-ah
Mister, Misses, Miss
Di dov'è?
dee doh-veh
Where are you from? (formal)
Di dove sei?
dee doh-veh seh-ee
Where are you from? (informal)
Sono di...
soh-noh dee
I am from...
Quanti anni ha?
kwahn-tee ahn-nee ah
How old are you? (formal)
Quanti anni hai?
kwahn-tee ahn-nee ah-ee
How old are you? (informal)
Ho venti anni.
oh vehn-tee ahn-nee
I am 20 years old.
Parla italiano?
par-lah ee-tahl-ee-ah-no
Do you speak Italian? (formal)
Parli inglese?
par-lee een-gleh-zeh
Do you speak English? (informal)
Parlo italiano. / Non parlo inglese.
par-lo ee-tahl-ee-ah-no / non par-lo een-gleh-zeh
I speak Italian. / I don't speak English.
Capisce? / Capisci?
kah-pee-sheh / kah-pee-shee
Do you understand? (formal / informal)
[Non] capisco.
[non] kah-pees-koh
I [don't] understand.
Non so. / Lo so.
non soh / low soh
I don't know. / I know.
Può aiutarmi? / Puoi aiutarmi?
pwoh ah-yoo-tar-mee / pwoh-ee ah-yoo-tar-mee
Can you help me? (formal / informal)
Certamente / D'accordo.
cher-tah-mehn-teh / dah-kohr-doh
Sure / OK.
Come?
koh-meh?
What? / Pardon me?
Desidera? / Desideri?
deh-zee-deh-rah / deh-zee-deh-ree
May I help you? (formal / informal)
Come si dice "house" in italiano?
koh-meh see dee-cheh "house" een ee-tah-lee-ah-noh
How do you say "house" in Italian?
Dov'è / Dove sono...?
doh-veh / doh-veh soh-noh
Where is / Where are... ?
Ecco / Eccoli...
eh-koh / eh-koh-lee
Here is / Here are...
C'è / Ci sono...
cheh / chee soh-noh
There is / There are...
Cosa c'è?
koh-zah cheh
What's the matter? / What's wrong?
Non importa. / Di niente. / Di nulla.
nohn eem-por-tah / dee nee-ehn-teh / dee noo-lah
It doesn't matter.
Non m'importa.
nohn meem-por-tah
I don't care.
Non ti preoccupare.
nohn tee preh-ohk-koo-pah-reh
Don't worry. (informal)
Ho dimenticato.
oh dee-men-tee-kah-toh
I forgot.
Devo andare adesso.
deh-voh ahn-dah-reh ah-des-soh
I have to go now.
Ho fame. / Ho sete.
oh fah-meh / oh seh-teh
I'm hungry. / I'm thirsty.
Ho freddo. / Ho caldo.
oh freh-doh / oh kal-doh
I'm cold. / I'm hot.
Mi annoio.
mee ahn-noh-ee-oh
I'm bored.
Salute!
sah-loo-teh
Bless you!
Congratulazioni!
kohn-grah-tsoo-lah-tsee-oh-nee
Congratulations!
Benvenuti!
behn-veh-noo-tee
Welcome!
Buona fortuna!
bwoh-nah for-too-nah
Good luck!
Tocca a me! / Tocca a te!
tohk-kah ah meh / tohk-kah ah teh
It's my turn! / It's your turn! (informal)
Ti amo.
tee ah-moh
I love you. (informal)
È pazzo! / Sei pazzo!
eh pats-soh / seh-ee pats-soh
You're crazy! (formal / informal)
Sta zitto! / Stai zitto!
stah tseet-toh / sty tseet-toh
Be quiet / Shut up! (formal / informal)
Va bene!
vah beh-neh
OK!

Notice that Italian has informal and formal ways of saying things. This is because there is more than one meaning to "you" in Italian (as well as in many other languages.) The informal you is used when talking to close friends, relatives, animals or children. The formal you is used when talking to someone you just met, do not know well, or someone for whom you would like to show respect (a professor, for example.) There is also a plural you, used when speaking to more than one person.

Also, the words pazzo and zitto refer to men. If you are talking to a woman, use pazza and zitta. If you are talking to more than one person (all men, or a group of men and women), use pazzi and zitti. If you are talking to more than one person (all women), use pazze and zitte.


2. Pronunciation / la pronuncia

Italian is a very phonetic language, so pronunciation should be easy.  Most words are pronounced exactly like they are spelled. There are only seven pure vowels, but several diphthongs and triphthongs. The English samples given are not pronounced exactly as in Italian because English vowels tend to be diphthongized (there's an extra yuh or wuh after the actual vowel). Make sure to only say the pure vowel and not the diphthong when pronouncing Italian.

Italian Vowels
English Pronunciation
[i] vita ee as in meet
[e] vedi ay as in bait
[ɛ] era eh as in bet
[a] cane ah as in father
[u] uva oo as in boot
[o] sole oh as in boat
[ɔ] modo aw as in law

Semi-Vowels
 
[w] quando, uomo wuh as in won
[j] piano, ieri, piove yuh as in yes


In spelling, the letter e is used to represent both [e] and [ɛ]; while the letter o is used to represent both [o] and [ɔ]. If the vowel is stressed, then the pronunciation is always closed [e] and [o]. If the vowel is not stressed, it is always open [ɛ] and [ɔ]. This can change according to regional dialects in Italy, of course, but this is the standard rule. Italian semi-vowels are always written ua, ue, uo, ui for [w] and ia, ie, io, iu for [j]. If another vowel precedes u or i, then it is a diphthong: ai, ei, oi, au, eu. The combination iu + another vowel creates a triphthong.


Italian consonant + vowel combinations

c + a, o, u, he, hi k amica, amico, amiche ah-mee-kah, ah-mee-koh, ah-mee-keh
c + ia, io, iu, e, i ch bacio, celebre, cinema bah-cho, cheh-leh-breh, chee-neh-mah
g + a, o, u, he, hi g gara, gusto, spaghetti gah-rah, goo-stoh, spah-geh-tee
g + ia, io, iu, e, i dj Giotto, gelato, magico djoh-toh, djeh-lah-toh, mah-djee-koh
sc + a, o, u, he, hi sk scala, scuola, scheda skah-lah, skoo-oh-la, skeh-dah
sc + ia, io, iu, e, i sh sciarpa, sciupato, scemo shar-pah, shoo-pah-toh, sheh-moh


The consonant h is always silent. Double consonants must be pronounced individually: il nonno (eel nohn-noh) is pronounced differently from il nono (eel noh-noh).

Stress falls on the second-to-last syllable in Italian. If stress falls on the last syllable, the vowel is written with an accent mark (la città). However, it is also possible for the stress to fall on the third-to-last syllable (America, telefono) and even the fourth-to-last syllable (telefonano) in third person plural verb conjugations.


3.  Alphabet / l'alfabeto

a ah q koo
b bee r ehr-reh
c chee s ehs-seh
d dee t teh
e eh u oo
f eff-eh v voo
g zhee z dzeh-tah
h ahk-kah
i ee Foreign Letters
l ehl-eh j ee loon-gah
m ehm-eh k kahp-pah
n ehn-eh w dohp-pyah voo
o oh x eeks
p pee y ee greh-kah (or) eep-see-lohn


4.  Articles & Demonstratives / Articoli e dimostrativi

All nouns in Italian have a gender (masculine or feminine) and the articles must agree with the gender. Masculine words generally end in -o and feminine words generally end in -a. Words that end in -e may be either, so you will just have to memorize the gender. Keep in mind that articles are used before nouns or before an adjective + a noun.


Definite Article - The

Masculine

Feminine

il eel sing., before consonants la lah sing., before consonants
lo low sing., before z, gn, ps, or s + cons.
l' l sing., before vowels l' l sing., before vowels
i ee plural, before consonants le leh plural, before consonants and vowels
gli lyee plural, before vowels, z, gn, or s + cons.


Indefinite Articles - A, an, some

Masculine

Feminine

A, An un oon before consonant or vowel una oon-ah before consonants
uno oon-oh before z, gn, ps, or s + consonant un' oon before vowels
Some dei day before consonants delle dell-eh before vowels and consonants
degli deh-lyee before vowels, z, gn, or s + cons.


Demonstratives - This, that, these, and those
This and these
This These
Masc. questo questi before a consonant
quest' questi before a vowel
Fem. questa queste before a consonant
quest' queste before a vowel

That and those
That Those
Masc. quel quei before a consonant
quell' quegli before a vowel
quello quegli before z, gn, or s + consonant
Fem. quella quelle before a consonant
quell' quelle before a vowel


If you use that and those as a subject, use these four forms: quello for masculine singular, quella for feminine singular, quelli for masculine plural, and quelle for feminine plural.


5.  Subject Pronouns / pronomi personali

io ee-oh I noi noy we
tu too you (informal singular) voi voy you (informal plural)
lui, lei lwee/lay he, she loro loh-roh they
Lei lay you (formal singular) Loro loh-roh you (formal plural)


The Lei form is generally used for you (singular), instead of tu, unless you're referring to kids or animals.  Loro can also mean you, but only in very polite situations. If you need to specify an inanimate object as "it" you can use esso (masculine noun) and essa (feminine noun), but since subject pronouns are not commonly used in Italian, these words are somewhat rare.


6. To Be & to Have / Essere & avere

Essere - to be
I am sono soh-noh we are siamo see-ah-moh
you are sei say you are siete see-eh-teh
he/she/it is è eh they are sono soh-noh

You do not have to use the subject pronouns as the different conjugations imply the subject, but they are included in the recordings.

Past & Future of Essere
I was ero we were eravamo I will be sarò we will be saremo
you were eri you were eravate you will be sarai you will be sarete
he/she was era they were erano he/she will be sarà they will be saranno

Avere - to have
I have ho oh We have abbiamo ahb-bee-ah-mo
you have hai eye you have avete ah-veh-teh
he/she has ha ah they have hanno ahn-noh

Past & Future of Avere
I had avevo we had avevamo I will have avrò we will have avremo
you had avevi you had avevate you will have avrai you will have avrete
he/she had aveva they had avevano he/she will have avrà they will have avranno


Avere
is used with many idioms and expressions that normally use the verb "to be" in English:

avere fame - to be hungry
avere sete - to be thirsty
avere caldo - to be warm
avere freddo - to be cold
avere fretta - to be in a hurry
avere paura (di) - to be afraid (of)
avere ragione - to be right
avere torto - to be wrong
avere sonno - to be sleepy
avere bisogno di - to need
avere voglia di - to want, to feel like
avere 20 anni - to be 20 years old

When avere is followed by a word beginning with a consonant, the final -e is often dropped: aver caldo, aver fretta, aver ragione, etc.


7. Useful Words / parole utile Flashcards also include subject pronouns.

and e eh always sempre sehm-preh
or o oh often spesso speh-soh
but ma mah sometimes qualche volta kwal-keh vohl-tah
not non nohn usually usualmente oo-zoo-al-mehn-teh
while mentre mehn-treh especially specialmente speh-chee-al-mehn-teh
if se seh except eccetto eh-cheh-toh
because perché pehr-kay book il libro lee-broh
very, a lot molto mohl-toh pencil la matita mah-tee-tah
also, too anche ahn-keh pen la penna pehn-nah
although benché behn-keh paper la carta kar-tah
now adesso, ora ah-deh-so, oh-rah dog il cane kah-neh
perhaps, maybe forse for-seh cat il gatto gah-toh
then allora, poi ahl-loh-rah, poy friend (fem) l'amica ah-mee-kah
there is c'è cheh friend (masc) l'amico ah-mee-koh
there are ci sono chee soh-noh woman la donna dohn-nah
there was c'era che-rah man l'uomo woh-moh
there were c'erano che-rah-no girl la ragazza rah-gat-sah
here is ecco ehk-koh boy il ragazzo rah-gat-soh

C'è can also mean is here, as in Nek's famous song: Laura non c'è - Laura's not here.


8. Question Words

Who Chi kee
Whose Di chi dee kee
What Che cosa keh koh-sah
Why Perché pehr-keh
When Quando kwahn-doh
Where Dove doh-veh
How Come koh-meh
How much Quanto kwahn-toh
Which Quale kwah-leh

 When dove, come, and quale are followed by è (is), dove and come contract to dov'è and com'è; and quale drops its e to become qual è.

9. cardinal & ordinal Numbers

0 zero dzeh-roh
1 uno oo-noh
2 due doo-eh
3 tre treh
4 quattro kwaht-troh
5 cinque cheen-kweh
6 sei say
7 sette seht-teh
8 otto aw-toh
9 nove naw-vay
10 dieci dee-ay-chee
11 undici oon-dee-chee
12 dodici doh-dee-chee
13 tredici treh-dee-chee
14 quattordici kwaht-tohr-dee-chee
15 quindici kween-dee-chee
16 sedici seh-dee-chee
17 diciassette dee-chahs-seht-teh
18 diciotto dee-choht-toh
19 diciannove dee-chahn-noh-veh
20 venti vehn-tee
21 ventuno vehn-too-noh
22 ventidue vehn-tee-doo-eh
23 ventitrè vehn-tee-treh
30 trenta trehn-tah
40 quaranta kwah-rahn-tah
50 cinquanta cheen-kwahn-tah
60 sessanta sehs-sahn-tah
70 settanta seht-tahn-tah
80 ottanta oh-tahn-tah
90 novanta noh-vahn-tah
100 cento chehn-toh
101 centouno chehn-toh-oo-noh
110 centodieci chehn-toh-dee-ay-chee
200 duecento doo-eh-chehn-toh
1,000 mille mee-leh
2,000 duemila doo-eh-mee-lah
million un milione mee-lee-oh-neh
billion un miliardo mee-lee-ar-doh


If a number ends in -tre, you need to add an accent: -trè. When you have a word that ends in a vowel, like venti, and another word that begins with a vowel, like uno; the first word loses its vowel when putting the two words together.  Venti (20) and uno (1) make ventuno (21).  One exception is cento; it does not lose its vowel.  Cento (100) and uno (1) make centouno (101).  Notice that cento does not have a plural form, but mille does (mila). And be aware that Italian switches the use of commas and decimals.


Ordinal Numbers

first primo / prima
second secondo / seconda
third terzo / terza
fourth quarto / quarta
fifth quinto / quinta
sixth sesto / sesta
seventh settimo / settima
eighth ottavo / ottava
ninth nono / nona
tenth decimo / decima
eleventh undicesimo / undicesima
twentieth ventesimo / ventesima
hundredth centesimo / centesima


From eleventh on, just drop the final vowel of the cardinal number and add -esimo.  For numbers like ventitrè, trentatrè, add -esimo but do not drop the final e.  Ordinal numbers are adjectives and must agree with the nouns they modify; -o is the masculine ending, -a is the feminine ending.


10. Days of the Week / Giorni della settimana

Monday lunedì loo-neh-dee
Tuesday martedì mahr-teh-dee
Wednesday mercoledì mehr-koh-leh-dee
Thursday giovedì zhoh-veh-dee
Friday venerdì veh-nehr-dee
Saturday sabato sah-bah-toh
Sunday domenica doh-men-ee-kah
yesterday ieri yer-ee
day before yesterday avantieri / l'altroieri (m) ah-vahn-tyee-ree
last night ieri sera yer-ee seh-rah
today oggi ohd-jee
tomorrow domani doh-mahn-ee
day after tomorrow dopodomani doh-poh-doh-mahn-ee
day il giorno eel zhor-noh


To say on Mondays, on Tuesdays, etc., use il before lunedì through sabato, and la before domenica.


11. Months of the Year / mesi dell'anno

January gennaio jehn-nah-yoh
February febbraio fehb-brah-yoh
March marzo mar-tsoh
April aprile ah-pree-leh
May maggio mahd-joh
June giugno joo-nyoh
July luglio loo-lyoh
August agosto ah-goh-stoh
September settembre seht-tehm-breh
October ottobre oht-toh-breh
November novembre noh-vehm-breh
December dicembre dee-chem-breh
week la settimana lah sett-ee-mah-nah
month il mese eel meh-zeh
year l'anno lahn-noh


Days and months are not capitalized.  To express the date, use È il (number) (month).  May 5th would be È il 5 (or cinque) maggio.  But for the first of the month, use primo instead of 1 or uno. To express ago, as in two days ago, a month ago, etc., just add fa afterwards. To express last, as in last Wednesday, last week, etc., just add scorso (for masculine words) or scorsa (for feminine words) afterwards.

una settimana fa - a week ago

la settimana scorsa - last week

un mese fa - a month ago

l'anno scorso - last year


12. Seasons / Stagioni

Summer l'estate leh-stah-teh
Fall l'autunno low-toon-noh
Spring la primavera lah pree-mah-veh-rah
Winter l'inverno leen-vehr-noh


To say in the (season), just use in.  In estate is in the summer, in primavera is in spring.  D'estate and d'inverno can also be used instead of in estate or in inverno.


13. Directions / direzioni

right destra
left sinistra
straight diritto

North nord nohrd
South sud sood
East est est
West ovest oh-vest


14. Colors & Shapes / Colori e forme

white bianco/a square il quadrato
yellow giallo/a circle il cerchio
orange arancione triangle il triangolo
pink rosa rectangle il rettangolo
red rosso/a oval l'ovale
light blue azzurro/a cube il cubo
dark blue blu sphere la sfera
green verde cylinder il cilindro
brown marrone cone il cono
grey grigio/a octagon l'ottagono
black nero/a box la scatola


Colors are adjectives and must agree with the nouns they modify; -o is the masculine ending, -a is the feminine ending. For example, rosso is masculine and rossa is feminine.  Color words always go after the noun they describe:

una casa gialla - a yellow house
il cubo rosso - the red cube

 

To ask the color of something:

Di che colore è il cielo? What color is the sky?
Di che colore sono i tuoi occhi? What color are your eyes?


15. Time / Il Tempo

What time is it? Che ora è? / Che ore sono? keh oh-rah eh / keh o-reh soh-noh
At what time? A che ora? ah keh oh-rah
It's 1:00 È l'una eh loo-nah
at 1:00 all'una ahl-loo-nah
(at) noon (a) mezzogiorno (ah) med-zoh-zhor-noh
(at) midnight (a) mezzanotte (ah) med-zah-noh-teh
2:00 Sono le due soh-noh leh doo-eh
3:10 Sono le tre e dieci soh-noh leh treh eh dee-ay-chee
4:50 Sono le cinque meno dieci soh-noh leh cheen-kwah meh-noh dee-ay-chee
8:15 Sono le otto e un quarto soh-noh leh awt-toh eh oon kwar-toh
7:45 Sono le otto meno un quarto soh-noh leh aw-toh meh-noh un kwar-toh
1:30 È l'una e mezza eh loo-nah eh med-zah
6:30 Sono le sei e mezzo soh-noh leh say-ee eh med-zoh
sharp in punto een poon-toh
in the morning di mattina dee maht-teen-ah
in the afternoon di pomeriggio dee poh-mehr-ee-zhee-oh
in the evening di sera dee seh-rah
at night di notte dee noht-teh


16. Weather / Il tempo atmosferico

What's the weather today? Che tempo fa oggi?
It's nice Fa bel tempo / È bello
bad Fa brutto tempo / È brutto
raining Piove / Sta piovendo
thundering Tuona
snowing Nevica / Sta nevicando
hailing Grandina / Sta grandinando
cold Fa freddo
cool Fa fresco
hot Fa caldo
freezing Fa un freddo gelido
foggy C'è nebbia
sunny C'è sole / È assolato
windy C'è vento / È ventoso / Fa vento
cloudy È nuvoloso
humid È umido
muggy È afoso
stormy È burrascoso


17. Family & Animals / Famiglia e Animali

family la famiglia relatives i parenti dog il cane
parents i genitori father-in-law il suocero cat il gatto
mother la madre mother-in-law la suocera bird l'uccello
father il padre son-in-law il genero mouse il topo
son il figlio daughter-in-law la nuora rabbit il coniglio
daughter la figlia brother-in-law il cognato horse il cavallo
brother il fratello sister-in-law la cognata cow la mucca
sister la sorella stepfather il patrigno donkey l'asino
grandfather il nonno stepmother la matrigna goat la capra
grandmother la nonna step/half brother il fratellastro sheep la pecora
grandson/nephew il nipote step/half sister la sorellastra goose l'oca
granddaughter/niece la nipote married sposato duck l'anatra
uncle lo zio divorced divorziato pig il maiale
aunt la zia separated separato hen la gallina
cousin (m) il cugino single (man) celibe deer il cervo
cousin (f) la cugina single (woman) nubile
husband il marito bachelor lo scapolo
wife la moglie widow la vedova
man l'uomo widower il vedovo
woman la donna godfather il padrino
boy il ragazzo godmother la madrina
girl la ragazza twins i gemelli / le gemelle


18. To Know People & Facts

conoscere-to know, be acquainted with sapere-to know (facts)
conosco conosciamo so sappiamo
conosci conoscete sai sapete
conosce conoscono sa sanno


Conoscere
is used when you know people and places.  It is conjugated regularly.  Sapere is used when you know facts. Sapere followed by an infinitive means to know how. In addition, the object must be expressed in Italian when using sapere. You cannot simply say I know as in English, but rather I know it: Lo so.

Io conosco Mario. I know Mario.

Voi conoscete la Francia. You know (have visited) France.

Tu sai nuotare. You know how to swim.

Loro sanno cantare. They know how to sing.


19. Formation of Plural Nouns

If a word is masculine singular, change the last letter to an i.  If a word is feminine singular, change the last letter to an e if it ends in a, or if it ends in e, change it to an i.

Singular to Plural Nouns

Masculine
-o -i
-a -i
-e -i
Feminine
-a -e
-e -i


Words ending in -io can either change the o to i, or just simply drop the o to form the plural. When the -i of -io is stressed, the plural is -ii; however, most words ending in -io do not stress the -i, and so their plurals are formed by dropping the o. Compare: lo zio - gli zii and il figlio - i figli.

Some nouns ending in -co and -go may or may not insert an h before changing the o to i.  There is no general rule for it.  All nouns ending in -ca and -ga insert an h before changing the a to e.  Nouns ending in an accented vowel do not change for the plural. (la città (city) becomes le città)  There are some masculine nouns that end -a, and these nouns change the -a to -i in the plural: il programma, il poeta, il pianete, il pilota, il poema, il sistema.  The plural of l'uomo (man) is gli uomini, while the plural of la mano (hand) is le mani.


20. Possessive Adjectives

Masc. Sing. Fem. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Pl.
my il mio la mia i miei (myeh-ee) le mie
your il tuo la tua i tuoi (twoh-ee) le tue
his/her il suo la sua i suoi (swoh-ee) le sue
our il nostro la nostra i nostri le nostre
your il vostro la vostra i vostri le vostre
their il loro la loro i loro le loro


You may leave off the definite article before family relation words in the singular.  All other times, you must use them.  Notice that loro does not change.


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