Indonesian Tutorial by Vremita Desectia


Learning to speak Indonesian is not as difficult as you think. The rules are so simple, it has no gender, no agreement with plural/singular noun and genders and case and time, and it is easy to pronounce.

As far as I know, the most problems that non-Indonesian-speakers have, are the prefixes, suffixes, and circumfixes.

I don't give much of those forms of the language in this book, I only give the basics.

I admit it; it is difficult to understand the prefixes, suffixes, and circumfixes. Even the students in the junior high schools seldom get an A+ for Indonesian :p

Did I say 'to understand'? Well, in the spoken language it does not matter (mostly) about the usage of the prefixes and we can understand people well. But if you're in an Indonesian school and you get the Indonesian subject. Well you have to think in Indonesian then.

Another problems in learning Indonesian: it has a lot of formal and informal forms.

But don't worry, since we only use the formal forms in a very formal situation (formal speech, ceremonies, etc) and formal-written-Indonesian (newspapers, etc) and in poetry.

Indonesian also has ameliorative and pejorative words, and the use of these words depends on the subjects. Example:

mati = die (natural sense)

we use these words to say 'die' but we see, "who dies"?

-mangkat = King

-gugur = soldier (die in the war, etc)

-wafat = good men (die because of old age)

-meninggal dunia = good men (die because of illness)

-tewas = people who die because of suicide, homicide, accident, etc.

-mampus = bad people, e.g a robber who dies because the police shot him

*for animal, just use the natural sense 'mati'.

And if you're talking in Indonesian and you don't know what to say, just use the natural word and people will understand you. It's all right; it's just the sense.

If you're a tourist and you want to ask some help from Indonesians, don't worry about using formal form or informal form because the words are both grammatically right; it's just the sense, and we Indonesians can understand you well.

Good luck in learning Indonesian. (vremita_desectia [at] yahoo.com)

Alphabets

Pronunciation

Example

Meaning

A

car

aku

I (informal)

B

bar

bola

ball

C

cheese, but softer, as in Italian ci, ce

cinta

love

D

day

dua

two

E

an opened one: French les ()

nenek

Grandma

 

a semi-opened one: end ()

elang

hawk

 

a closed one: opened

embun

dew

F

fun

foto

photo

G

good

gadis

girl

H

hard, hush

hotel

hotel

I

film

ikan

fish

J

judge (Arabic ج)

janji

promise, to promise

K

kind

kata

word

L

law

lampu

lamp

M

mother

mimpi

dream, to dream

N

new

novel

novel

O

an opened one: of, ball ()

(as in Arabic ر,ق)

omong

to say (informal)

 

A closed one: old ()

orang

man, people

P

pure

pandai, pintar

clever

Q

quality

Quran

The Koran

R

trilled like Italian, Spanish r,

like rrrrrrrrright :D (Arabic ر)

rumah

house

S

sand

surat

letter

T

time

   

U

good, blue

uang

money

V

viva

voli

volley

W

hard one: wave

wafat

to die (polite)

 

soft one: swing

waktu

time

X

extreme

xerofit

xerofit

Y

hard one: you, yard

yunior

junior

 

soft one: sounds like long ee

(Arabic ي)

yatim

kid who does not have father

Z

zorro, not like Italian z (tz), but like bee sound zzzz :D (Arabic ز)

zigot

zygote




Double Consonants

Pronunciation

Example

Meanings

kh

Arabic ﺥ

khusus

specific

ng

singing English song

senang

to be happy, glad, cheerful, pleased

ngg

mango, anggar

anggun

posh, beautiful, la serenit

ny

Sonya (name), Italian Signore

nyanyi

to sing

sy

Shy, Italian scendere

syarat

requirement

Diphthongs

Pronunciation

Example

Meaning

ai

I, find, Italian hai

baik

good, well, nice

au

now, Raul Gonzales :D, Italian naufragare (like Arabic و)

mau

to will, want (informal)

ia

Italian, la mia bianca scia

siang

afternoon

iu

future, Italian pi, giustizzia

cium

kiss, to kiss

oi

boy, voice, Italian noi

"Amboi!"

"Wow!", "Gosh!"

ua

Italian la sua

suara

voice

Note:

      Some Indonesian words have double vowels, such as saat (time, when..) bait (a paragraph in a poetry).

      Sometimes, a word has 'triple diphtongs', like beliau (he, she, polite), sesuai (suitable). You have to pronounce all the letters, because Indonesian pronunciation does not 'swallow' any word of its words.

      There are more diphthongs in Indonesian, but those are the most important.
Basic Phrases in Indonesian

Hello hai, halo

Good morning (til 10am) selamat pagi (selamat-closed e)

Good afternoon (til 3pm) selamat siang

Good evening (til 6pm) selamat sore (sore-semi-opened e)

Good night selamat malam

How are you? Apa kabar?

I am fine, thanks Baik, terimakasih

What is your name? Siapa nama Anda? (formal)

My name is __ Nama saya __

How old are you? Berapa umur Anda? (formal)

I am __ years old Umur saya __ tahun

Do you speak English? Apakah Anda berbicara bahasa Inggris? (formal)

Yes, I speak English Ya, saya berbicara bahasa Inggris

Can you speak English? Dapatkah Anda berbicara bahasa Inggris? (formal)

No, I can't speak English Tidak, saya tidak dapat berbicara bahasa Inggris

Nice to meet you Senang berkenalan dengan Anda (formal)

Note: To change formal forms into informal forms, simply change the word Anda to kamu.

Yes/No Ya/Tidak

Excuse me/Pardon me Permisi

Sorry Maaf

Thank you Terimakasih

You are welcome Sama-sama

Please Tolong

Goodbye Daag (daah - taken from Dutch language)

Selamat tinggal (it means.. 'never see you again')

Goodbye (have a nice trip) Selamat jalan

See you Sampai jumpa

Mr. Tuan (formal)

Bapak (married)

Saudara (not married)

Mrs. Nyonya (formal)

Ibu

Miss Nona (formal)

Saudari


I will add some note about addressing in Indonesian. Well, in Indonesian culture, people prefer to address each other with their names. It is to respect other people. But sometimes in informal situation, e.g with classmates, Indonesians can address others with 'kamu'.

When addressing elder people, Indonesians NEVER use 'kamu', but Indonesians also seldom address with Anda. Indonesians usually address with 'Bapak' or 'Ibu' or 'Saudara/i'. Sometimes it is followed with the person's name. For example, Bapak Ahmad.

Do NOT address these people with 'kamu':

-         Any member of your family. I mean, ANY. Even your little sister.

-         Your teachers, even if they are younger than you.

-         Your schoolmates that are in grades higher than you, e.g. you're in Grade 10th, so you shouldn't address the 11th Graders with 'kamu'.

-         Your colleagues

-         Any persons in your business life.

-         Any elder people you know or you meet.

-         Strangers.

You should address these people with 'Bapak' or 'Ibu' (can be followed with their names):

-         Your teachers

-         Any persons in your business life.

-         Any elder people you know or you meet.

Note on addressing in family:

Indonesians prefer to address their family members with their status, example:

Bapak / Ayah / Papa father

Ibu / Bunda / Mama mother

Kakak elder sister/brother

Adik younger sister/brother

Nenek grandmother

Kakek grandfather

Paman/Om your parents' brother

Bibi/Tante your parents' sister

etc.

When addressing cousins, Indonesians tend to use 'kamu' or their names instead.


A similar rule applies to the first person pronoun (saya and aku).

The rule is pretty simple, just call yourselves with 'saya' when talking to elderly people, at work/school, business, in public, when talking to strangers, and some other formal situations.

Call yourselves with 'aku' when talking to your friends, younger persons, and some other informal situations.

Important note:

- Old people, married people, business men/women, etc always call themselves 'saya' instead of 'aku' due to politeness. They also NEVER address people with 'kamu'. They always address with Bapak, Ibu, Saudara/i, and can be followed by the persons' names.

- Young people can call themselves with 'saya' or 'aku', while the rules of politeness apply, as mentioned above.


Singular Pronouns

I

saya (formal)

 

aku (informal)

you (singular)

Anda (formal) >> also formal plural

 

kamu (informal)

he, she, it

ia (formal)

 

beliau (formal, addressing an elder person)

beliau-closed e

 

dia

Plural Pronouns

we

kami (I and my friend)

 

kita (I, my friend, and you)

you (plural)

Anda (formal) >> also formal singular

 

kalian (informal)

he, she, it

mereka

Indonesian singular and plural nouns are easy to recognize.

buku a book

buku-buku some books

komputer a computer

komputer-komputer some computers

But be careful; repeated words not only express plural form, but they also mean other things. Sometimes, prefixes/suffixes/circumfixes are added, or the letters/sound are changed.

Meaning

Word

Meaning

Note

look-a-like

mobil-mobilan

not a real car; just a car toy

mobil: car

frequnciness

memukul-mukul

to hit a few times

pukul: to hit

reciprocal

berpandang-pandangan

to gaze at each other

pandang: to gaze

slightly

kemerah-merahan

nearly red; pink-red

merah: red

Actually there are some other functions of the repeated words, but since we need more knowledge about the language (even we Indonesians still have to study about these forms), I decided not to give them yet. But if you find any Indonesian sentences that you feel difficult to translate, just send me an e-mail and I'll contact you.


Articles

 

Actually, Indonesian does not have articles. But we have different ways to say 'a/an/some' and 'the' for person/s, thing/s, or animal/s.

The rule is to add 'se' (which means one, a/an) plus a special word.

Singular Plural

Person: seorang Persons: beberapa orang

Thing: sebuah Things: beberapa buah

Animal: seekor Animals: beberapa ekor

*What have you learnt? Good. 'beberapa' can be translated as 'some'.

 

Kakakku adalah seorang guru

My sister/brother is a teacher

 

Saya mempunyai beberapa ekor kelinci

I have some rabbits

*Notice: beberapa ekor kelinci >> 'beberapa' showed the plural form, so you don't have to say 'beberapa ekor kelinci-kelinci'.

There are several other indefinite articles. They are specialized:

Secarik/selembar kertas a (piece of) paper

Sebutir telur an egg

Sebulir air mata a tear (liquid comes from the eye)

Sepotong roti a (piece of) bread

Setetes air a dip of water

Actually there are still lots of articles like those, but those are the most common.
I'll tell you that Indonesian does not have the verb 'to be'. But sometimes, it's similar to the Indonesian word adalah. Only for several situation:

Saya adalah pelajar.

I am a student.

Ini adalah buku saya.

This is my book.

Itu adalah kesalahan besar.

That is a big mistake.

However, in informal situation (mostly in spoken Indonesian), we can omit the word adalah.

In formal/written language, this word is just sometimes omitted.

And remember that adalah CAN'T be used as 'to be' when:

-telling time

-showing adjectives

-passive sentence, e.g. I am called.

Indonesian only has two ways to say this, these, that, or those:

this, these ini

that, those itu

Note: The demonstratives are placed after the noun, i.e:

kursi ini this chair

meja itu (mdja) that table

kursi-kursi ini these chairs

meja-meja itu those tables

*In the informal spoken language, we can place the demonstrative before/after the noun.

How to say here, there:

sini

here

di sini

In here, at here

ke sini

to here

sana

sana

di sana

in there, at there

ke sana

to there

 


Possesive Pronouns

 

My

. saya (formal)

-ku (informal)

Your

. Anda (formal)

-mu (informal)

Her, his, its

-nya

 

Pacarmu adalah teman sekolahku

Your girlfriend/boyfriend is my schoolmate

Boleh saya beritahu kamu rahasianya?

May I tell you her/his secret?

Sebenarnya dia adalah tunangan saya

Actually he/she is my fiance/e

Note:

-nya can also define a noun (definite article). Example:

Radionya menyala

The radio is turned on

Aku membawa bukunya

I bring the book

Our

. kami, . kita

Your

. kalian

Their

. mereka

 

Mari kita mulai pelajaran kita

Let us start our lesson

Tutup mata kalian.. tarik nafas..

Close your eyes.. take a breath..

Dengarkan suara mereka..

Listen to their voice..

Mine

Milik saya, milikku, punya saya (formal)

Punyaku (informal)

Yours

Milik Anda, milikmu (formal)

Punyamu (informal)

Hers, his, its

Miliknya (formal)

Punyanya (informal)

Jangan sentuh! Buku itu milik saya

Don't touch! That book is mine

Dan ini milik Anda

And this is yours

Maaf, tapi buku yang Anda pegang itu miliknya

Sorry, but the book you're holding is hers

Ours

Milik kami, milik kita (formal)

Punya kami, punya kita (informal)

Yours

Milik Anda, milik kalian (formal)

Punya kalian (informal)

Theirs

Milik mereka (formal)

Punya mereka (informal)

 

Mobil ini milik kita

This car is ours

Dua mobil itu milik kalian

Those two cars are yours

Dan yang baru itu milik mereka

And that new one is theirs

 


Present, Past, and Future tense

Simpler than you think. Just put:

tengah (formal)

sedang (informal)

present, simple present, perfect present, continuous, etc.

telah (formal)

sudah (informal)

past, simple past, past participle, etc.

akan

future, conditional, etc.

Saya merokok

I smoke

Saya sedang merokok

I am smoking

Saya sudah merokok

I smoked

I have smoked

I had smoked

I have been smoking

I had been smoking

Saya akan merokok

I will smoke

I will be smoking

I will have smoked

The subject, the verb, the nouns, the adjectives, and the adverbs do not change their forms.


Negation

 

Indonesian has two ways to form a negative sentence. We use the words tidak and bukan. The word bukan is to form a negative sentence such as denial about something, then follow the clause with an explanation using the word melainkan (but).

 

Tidak:

Buku itu tidak bagus.

That book is not good.

 

Saya tidak tahu.

I don't know.

Bukan:

Buku itu bukan hitam, melainkan hijau.

That book is not black, but (it is) green.

 

Saya bukan dokter, melainkan reporter.

I am not a doctor, but (I am) a reporter.

 


Position

Di

in, on, at

Di atas

up, upon, on, onto, over, above

Di bawah

down, under, below

Di depan

in front of

Di belakang

behind

Di samping

beside

Di dalam

in, into, inside

Di luar

out, outside

Di antara

between

Ke

to

Ke atas

upwards

Ke bawah

downwards

Ke depan

forwards, towards

Ke belakang

backwards

Ke samping

aside

Ke dalam

inside

Ke luar

outside

Dari

from

Dari dalam

from inside

Dari luar

from outside

Kue itu di atas meja

The cake is on the table

Saya di sekolah

I am at school

Saya pergi ke sekolah

I go to school

Saya pindah ke depan

I move towards

Saya dari kedai kopi

I am from the coffee shop

(I just from the coffee shop)

(I just back from the coffee shop)


Comparative and Superlative

Just add:

lebih for comparative

paling or ter- for superlative

big besar

bigger lebih besar

biggest paling besar / terbesar

small kecil

smaller lebih kecil

smallest paling kecil

Botol ini lebih besar daripada itu

This bottle is bigger than that

Bola ini lebih kecil daripada itu

This ball is smaller than that

Ini adalah botol terkecil / paling kecil

This is the smallest bottle

Itu adalah ball terbesar / paling besar

That is the biggest ball

Note:

Daripada means 'than'. It can also means 'instead of'

Saya lebih muda daripada kamu

I am younger than you

Dia akan bermain piano daripada bernyanyi
He will play the piano instead of singing


Useful words

at, in, on

to

from

for

that, which

(similar to Italian che)

now

before

after

very

very

until

until

because

will (going to)

have (avere)

not yet

is spite of / despite

If

only, just

only, just

with, by

di -- we'll learn further about this :D

ke (closed e)

dari

untuk

yang

yang

sekarang (closed e)

sebelum (closed e)

sesudah (closed e)

sangat (before the word)

sekali (after the word))

sampai (places)

hingga

karena, sebab

akan

sudah

belum

walaupun (formal), walau (informal)

jika, bila, seandainya, andaikan, andai (formal), kalau (informal)

hanya (before the word)

saja (after the word)

dengan (closed e)

Saya sangat senang

I am very happy

Kamu cantik sekali / Kamu sangat cantik

You are very beautiful

Kamu tampan sekali / Kamu sangat tampan

You are very handsome

Saya sudah sarapan

I have had breakfast

Saya belum sarapan

I have not had breakfast yet

Jika Anda merasa kesulitan, saya siap membantu Anda

If you feel any difficulties, I am ready to help you

Kalau kamu mau, aku akan ke rumahmu besok

If you want, I will come to your house tomorrow

Questions

what

who

where at

where to

which one

when

why

why

how

how much/

how many

apa

siapa

mana, di mana / dimana

ke mana / kemana

yang mana

kapan

mengapa (formal)

kenapa (informal)

bagaimana

berapa

(all e in this column are closed e)

Apa yang kamu lihat?

What are you looking at?

Siapa di sana?

Who is there?

Dimana kamu?

Where are you?

Kemana kamu pergi?

Where are you going?

Bunga yang mana yang paling indah?

Which flower is the most beautiful?

Mengapa kamu menangis?

Why are you crying?

Kenapa kamu tidak menjawab?

Why aren't you answering?

Berapa harganya?

How much does it cost?

Berapa banyak kelinci yang kamu punyai/kamu miliki?

How many rabbits do you have?


Numbers

0 nol

1 satu

2 dua

3 tiga

4 empat

5 lima

6 enam

7 tujuh

8 delapan

9 sembilan

10 sepuluh

11 sebelas

12 duabelas

13 tigabelas

14 empatbelas

15 limabelas

16 enambelas

17 tujuhbelas

18 delapanbelas

19 sembilanbelas

20 duapuluh

21 duapuluh satu

22 duapuluh dua

23 duapuluh tiga

24 duapuluh empat

25 duapuluh lima

30 tigapuluh

40 empatpuluh

50 limapuluh

60 enampuluh

70 tujuhpuluh

80 delapanpuluh

90 sembilanpuluh

100 seratus

101 seratus satu

110 saratus sepuluh

120 seratus duapuluh

200 duaratus

300 tigaratus

1.000 seribu

10.000 sepuluh ribu

100.000 seratus ribu

1.000.000 satu juta

1.000.000.000 satu milyar


Kedua pria itu sangat tampan

Those two guys are very handsome

Saya menyukai keduanya

I love both of them (those two guys)

Saya akan mendekati salah satu dari mereka

I will approach one of them

Hei, kalian berdua! Ini nomor telepon saya:

Hey, you two! Here's my phone number:

Nol-enam-dua-dua-tujuh-empat-delapan-delapan-dua-tiga-nol-satu

Zero-six-two-two-seven-four-eight-eight-two-three-zero-one

Telepon saya sesudah pukul sembilan malam

Call me after nine p.m.

Kamu sudah menelepon saya sekali / dua kali / tiga kali

You have called me once / twice / three times

 

Numbers

First pertama

Second kedua

Third ketiga

Fourth keempat

Fifth kelima

*and just add ke- and so on :P

Saya merupakan anak pertama di dalam keluarga saya

I am the first child in my family

Saya mendapat rank kedua di sekolah saya

I got the second rank in my school

Ini adalah ketiga kalinya saya mendapat posisi bagus di sekolah saya

This is the third time I got good position in my school

Dan untuk keempat kalinya, orangtua saya memberikan saya hadiah

And for the fourth time, my parents give me prizes

Days in a Week

Sunday Ahad / Minggu

Monday Senin

Tuesday Selasa

Wednesday Rabu

Thursday Kamis

Friday Jumat (Jum'at)

Saturday Sabtu

week minggu

day hari

holiday hari libur

yesterday kemarin

today hari ini

tomorrow esok (formal), besok (informal)

next tomorrow lusa

Notice how similar are those days with Arabic numbers:

wahid, isnain, tsalasa, arba'atun, khamsatun, etc.

However, usually Indonesian starts the day with Senin, Selasa, etc.

Hari apa hari ini?

What day is today?

Hari ini hari Minggu

Today is Sunday

Aduh, aku harus masuk sekolah besok!

Ow, I have to go to school tomorrow!

(literally: I have to be inside the school tomorrow. Masuk: in, inside)

 

Besok? Tapi besok hari libur

Tomorrow? But tomorrow is holiday

 

Eh.. Aku ketinggalan sesuatu di sekolah kemarin.. Tugas untuk minggu ini

Er.. I left something in school yesterday.. Homework for this week

 

Pergilah. Aku akan menunggumu. Ingat, kita akan ada pesta malam ini

Off you go. I'll be waiting for you. Remember, we'll have a party tonight

 

Oke. Sampai nanti

Okay. See you later

 


Months in a Year

January Januari

February Februari

March Maret

April April

May Mei

June Juni

July Juli

August Agustus

September September

October Oktober

November November

December Desember

month bulan

year tahun

Note: The word 'month' (bulan) in Indonesian is the same as 'moon' (bulan).

Saya akan ke Jakarta pada bulan Mei

I am going to Jakarta on May

Saya akan ke SMU tahun ini

I am going to go to high school this year

Direction

North utara

Northwest barat laut

West barat

Southwest barat daya

South selatan

Southeast tenggara

East timur

Northeast timur laut

Rumahku terletak di timur Masjid

My house is to the east of the mosque

Di selatannya terdapat rumah sepupuku

To the south of it there is my cousin's house


Colors

black hitam

grey abu-abu

white putih

red merah

pink merah muda

green hijau

blue biru

yellow kuning

orange oranye

purple ungu

brown cokelat

dark green hijau tua

light green hijau muda

dark blue biru tua

light blue biru muda

*and so on

Matanya berwarna cokelat muda

His eyes are light brown

Saya menyukai jaket biru tua itu

I love that dark blue jacket

Seasons

Spring musim semi

Summer musim panas

Fall musim gugur

Winter musim dingin

Rain musim hujan

Dry musim kemarau

Note: musim means season

Pada musim kemarau udara menjadi dingin

In dry season the air becomes so cold


Countries, Languages, and Nationalities

Australia

Belgium

Canada

China

Croatia

France

Egypt

England

Germany

Great Britain

Italy

Japan

Mexico

Netherlands

Norway

Poland

Russia

Saudi Arabia

Singapore

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey

USA

Australia

Belgia

Kanada

Cina

Kroasia

Perancis

Mesir

Inggris

Jerman

Britania Raya

Italia

Jepang

Meksiko

Belanda

Norwegia

Polandia

Rusia

Arab Saudi

Singapura

Spanyol

Swedia

Swiss

Turki

Amerika Serikat

Those are some of the country names. What about the languages and nationalities? Simple. Just put bahasa (language) or orang (people, person, man/woman) before the name of the country you desire.

Australia Australia

English Bahasa Inggris

Australian Orang Australia

Saudi Arabia Arab Saudi

Arabic Bahasa Arab

Arabian Orang Arab

Italy Italia

Italian Bahasa Italia

Italian Orang Italia

Note: If you're an American and you speak English, then you shouldn't say "Saya berbicara bahasa Amerika", but you should say "Saya berbicara bahasa Inggris".


Family

Mother Ibunda (very formal)

Bunda (formal)

Ibu (informal/familiar)

Father Ayahanda (very formal)

Ayah (formal)

Bapak (informal/familiar)

Elder sister / brother Kakak

Younger sister / brother Adik

Elder brother Kanda (very formal)

Younger sister Dinda (very formal)

 

Grandmother Nenek

Grandfather Kakek

Granddaughter / grandson Cucu

 

Husband Suami

Wife Istri

Daughter Putri

Son Putra

 

Aunt Bibi (vocative: Tante)

Uncle Paman (vocative: Om)

Cousin Sepupu

Nephew / niece Kemenakan (formal)

Keponakan (informal)

 

Mother-in-law Ibu mertua

Father-in-law Ayah mertua

Elder sister/brother-in-law Kakak ipar

Younger sister/brother-in-law Adik ipar

 

Stepmother Ibu tiri

Stepfather Ayah tiri

Step-eldersister/brother Kakak tiri

Step-younger sister/brother Adik tiri


Animals

cat kucing

dog anjing (pejorative)

fish ikan

ant semut

rooster/hen ayam

cow sapi

goat kambing

bee lebah

bird burung

rabbit kelinci

elephant gajah

giraffe jerapah

frog katak (ameliorative), kodok (pejorative)

snake ular

sheep biri-biri

butterfly kupu-kupu

spider laba-laba

Note:


Schools and Professions

School sekolah

Teacher guru

Student murid

Book buku

Pen pena

Class kelas

Classroom ruang kelas

Math matematika

Biology biologi

Geography geografi

Chemical kimia

History sejarah

Economy ekonomi

Physic fisika

accountant akuntan

engineer insinyur

office worker karyawan (m), karyawati (f)

doctor dokter

teacher guru

architect arsitek

lawyer pengacara

Note:

teacher means guru. Literally, it also means 'pengajar'. >>

ajar to study/to teach

mengajar teach

pengajar teacher

pelajar student

belajar to study


Now it's time to get serious. I will give some examples about the conjugation with prefixes, suffixes, and circumfixes.

Prefixes

word

me

ber

di

ter

pe

per

memper

se

Tulis

(to write)

Menulis

(write)

-

Ditulis

(written)

Tertulis

(written)

Penulis

(writer)

-

-

-

Jalan

(to walk)

-

Berjalan

(to walk)

-

-

Pejalan

(walker

-

-

-

Baca

(to read)

Membaca

(read)

-

Dibaca

(read)

Terbaca

(read)

Reader

(pembaca)

-

-

-

Lihat

(to see)

Melihat

(see)

-

Dilihat

(seen)

Terlihat

(seen)

-

-

-

-

Dengar

(to hear, listen)

Mendengar

(hear, listen)

-

Didengar

(heard)

Terdengar

(heard)

Pendengar

(listener)

 

-

-

The table that I left does not mean that the words do not exist; they just don't make sense, or they need a suffix.

The prefix 'memper-' has two function:

1. if it is followed by an adjective, it is to make something to be.. (the adjective).

2. if it is followed by a verb, it is to do something to other person, to make other person.. (the verb)

There is a confusion between the prefix 'pe' and 'per'.

-         'pe' shows the person who does the verb, while

-         'per' shows the person who has a profession as the verb.

'se' means one. You can see how it works on the numbering section.


Prefixes, suffixes, and circumfixes

Prefix

Circumfix

Suffix

Prefix and suffix

me-

ber-

di-

ter-

pe-

per-

memper-

se-

ke-

-em-

-an

-kan

-i

-wan

-man

-lah

me-kan

me-i

memper-i

memper-kan

pe-an

per-an

ber-an

se-nya

Prefixes >> prefixes are always closed e

me-

to make an active sentence, to make something change, and needs an object

(watch how the letter changes before the first word of the infinitive)

Mengambil

Membuat

Mencari

Mendengar

Mengevaluasi

Mengganti

Menghilang

Mengisi

Menjual

Mengira

Melihat

Memasak

Mengoperasi

Memindah

Merasa

Menyapu

Menulis

Mengulang

Me + ambil

Me + buat

Me + cari

Me + dengar

Me + evaluasi

Me + ganti

Me + hilang

Me + isi

Me + jual

Me + kira

Me + lihat

Me + masak

Me + operasi

Me + pindah

Me + rasa

Me + sapu

Me + tulis

Me + ulang

To take

To make, to create

To search, to look for

To hear, to listen to

To evaluate

To change

To be disappeared

To fill in

To sell

To guess

To see

To cook

To do an operation(surgery)

To move (stuff)

To feel

To sweep

To write

To repeat

Saya mengambil baju-baju saya

Kamu membuat lukisan

Saya mencari teman saya

Saya mendengar sesuatu

Kamu mengisi gelas itu dengan air

Ayah menjual mobilnya

Kamu melihatku?

Saya memindah weblog saya

Saya merasa capai / lelah

Dia menyapu lantai

Kamu menulis sebuah lagu

I take my clothes

You make a painting (you paint/you are painting)

I look for my friend

I hear something

You fill the glass with water

Father sells his car

Do you see me?

I move my weblog

I feel tired

She/he sweeps the floor

You write a song

ber-

to make an active sentence that does not have to followed by an object

Berangkat

Berbahasa

Bercinta

Berdansa

Berguru

Berhitung

Berjanji

Bermain

Berpura-pura

Bersantai

Bertaruh

Berubah

Bervariasi

Berzina

Ber + angkat

Ber + bahasa

Ber + cinta

Ber + dansa

Ber + guru

Ber + hitung

Ber + janji

Ber + main

Ber + pura-pura

Ber + santai

Ber + taruh

Ber + ubah

Ber + variasi

Ber + zina

To have a departure

To have an ability to speak a/some language/s

To have sex

To have a dance

To have a study

To have count

To have a promise

To have a play

To have a pretend

To have a relax

To have a bet

To have a change

To have a variation

To have an affair, a prostitution

Ayah berangkat ke kantor

Saya berbahasa Indonesia

Apakah kamu bercinta dengannya?

Maukah kamu berdansa denganku?

Saya berjanji padamu

Jangan berpura-pura tidak tahu

Mari bersantai di gazebo

Aku bertaruh dia akan menang

Father leaves for office

I speak Indonesian

Do you have sex with her?

Would you dance with me?

I promise you

Don't pretend like you don't know

Let's have a relax in the gazebo

I bet she/he will win

di-

to make a passive sentence

note: must be caused by something

(not improvviso)

Diambil

Dibuat

Dicari

Didamba

Diganti

Dihuni

Diisi

Dijumlah

Dikandung

Dilihat

Diminta

Diolah

Diproses

Dirinci

Disumpah

Ditambah

Diulang

Di + ambil

Di + buat

Di + cari

Di + damba

Di + ganti

Di + huni

Di + isi

Di + jumlah

Di + kandung

Di + lihat

Di + minta

Di + olah

Di + proses

Di + rinci

Di + sumpah

Di + tambah

Di + ulang

To be taken

To be made

To be searched, to be looked for

To be wanted, to be waited

To be changed

To be occupied

To be filled in

To be calculated

To be contained

To be seen

To be asked

To be processed (factory)

To be processed

To be explained, to be described

To be sworn

To be added, to be increased

To be repeated

 

Kamu dicari orangtuamu

Jadwal hari ini telah diganti

Rumah ini hanya dihuni oleh kami berdua

Aku sudah lakukan apa yang diminta olehnya

Susu itu diolah di pabrik

Saya adalah penerjemah yang telah disumpah

You are looked for by your parents

(your parents [are]look[ing] for you)

Today's schedule is changed

This house is only occupied by us

(just us that live in this house)

I have done what she/he asked me to

The milk is processed in the factory

I am a sworn translator

Ter-

To make a superlative

Note: you can change the prefix 'ter-' with the word paling, i.e:

terbaru = paling baru

(the newest)

Terbaru

Tercantik

Terenak

Terindah

Terkecil

Terlebar

Termanis

Terpandai

Terpintar

Tertua

Ter + baru

Ter + cantik

Ter + enak

Ter + indah

Ter + kecil

Ter + lebar

Ter + manis

Ter + pandai

Ter + pintar

Ter + tua

The newest

The fairest (woman)

The most delicious

The most beautiful

The smallest

The widest

The sweetest

The cleverest/the smartest

The cleverest/the smartest

The oldest

 

To make a passive sentence, but not like di-, we don't know if the word with ter- is caused by somehing or just improvviso

Terambil

Tercuri

Terganggu

Teringat

Terjual

Terlihat

Tertulis

Ter + ambil

Ter + curi

Ter + ganggu

Ter + ingat

Ter + jual

Ter + lihat

Ter + tulis

To be taken

To be stolen

To be disturbed

To be remember

To be sold

To be seen

To be written

Dia adalah wanita tercantik di Swedia

Bali adalah tempat terindah yang pernah kulihat

Kenangan itu termanis dalam hidupku

Dia adalah anak terpandai di kelas

She is the most beautiful woman in Sweden

Bali is the most beautiful place I've ever seen

That was the sweetest memory in my life ever

He is the cleverest boy in the class

Saya merasa sangat terganggu

Saya teringat akan Bali

Gaun itu telah terjual

Kamu bisa terlihat orang lain!

Kalimat itu tertulis di kertas

I am feeling so disturbed/annoyed/aggravated

I remember about Bali

The gown is sold

You could have been seen!

That sentence is written on the paper


Pe-

Person / thing who does, makes, etc.

Pengambil

Pemburu

Pencium

Pendaki

Penghitung

Pengikut

Penjual

Pengasih

Pelukis

Pemula

Pemukul

Penyanyi

Penyaji

Penari

Penunggu

Pe + ambil

Pe + buru

Pe + cium

Pe + daki

Pe + hitung

Pe + ikut

Pe + jual

Pe + kasih

Pe + lukis

Pe + mula

Pe + pukul

Pe + nyanyi

Pe + saji

Pe + tari

Pe + tunggu

Person who takes

Hunter

Kisser

Hiker

Person who counts

A tool used for counting things

Follower

Seller

Person who likes to give

Painter

Beginner

Person who hits

Singer

Servant

Dancer

Person who waits

 

Dia adalah pendaki yang hebat

Mereka adalah pengikutku

Pelan-pelan, aku masih pemula

Aku ingin menjadi penyanyi

Kamu adalah penari yang baik

Dia adalah pencium yang hebat

She/he is a great climber

They are my follower

Slow down, I am still a beginner

I want to be a singer

You are a good dancer

He's an unbelieveable kisser


Indonesian phrases in several situations

1. Common expressions

Saya senang

I am happy/glad

Saya sedih

I am sad

Saya lelah

I am tired

Saya lapar

I am hungry

Saya haus

I am thirsty

Saya mengantuk

I am sleepy

Saya takut

I am scared/I am afraid

Saya bingung

I am confused

Saya bosan

I am bored

Saya sakit

I am sick/I am ill


2. In the restaurant

Pelayan!

Waiter! Waitress!

Tolong menunya

The menu, please

Apa menu spesial hari ini?

What's the special menu of today?

Saya pesan..

I want.. (literally: I reserve)

Jangan terlalu pedas / asin / manis

Don't be too spicy(hot) / salty / sweet

Tolong bonnya

The bill, please

Makanan Foods Minuman Beverages

Nasi rice air water

Sup soup susu milk

Daging meat kopi coffee

Telur egg teh tea

Mie noodle jus juice

Ayam chicken bir beer

Sapi beef limun lemonade

Jagung corn

Jamur mushroom

Keju cheese

Tomat tomato

Kentang potato

Kue cake

Roti bread

Note:

Nowadays, western foods in Indonesian restaurants are written as their natives:

salad, spaghetti, tiramisu, pizza, kebab, sushi, yakiniku, etc.


3. In the hotel

Anda punya kamar kosong?

Do you have any unoccupied rooms?

Kamar Anda di lantai satu / dua / tiga

Your room is on 1st floor / 2nd floor / 3rd floor

Ini kunci kamar Anda

This is your key

Anda punya kamar yang lebih baik / murah?

Do you have any rooms better(nicer) / cheaper?

Saya ingin kamar dengan..

I want a room with..

Saya tidak memerlukan kamar dengan..

I do not need a room with.. (it's not necessary to me)

Kamar mandi, air panas, ekstra bed, AC, televisi, lemari es, telepon

Bathroom, hot water, extra bed, AC, TV, refrigerator, telephone

Apakah sudah termasuk sarapan?

Is breakfast included?

Saya mau check in / check out

I want to check in / check out

Tolong angkat koper saya

Please lift my luggage

Tolong carikan taksi

Please get me a taxi
4. In the city

Taksi!

Taxi!

Tolong antar saya ke..

Please take me to the..

Berhenti! Stop!

Stop!

Berapa saya harus bayar?

How much do I have to pay?

Permisi, dimana..

Excuse me, where is the..

Belok kanan / kiri

Turn right / left

Lurus

Move towards

Saya mau tukar 100 Euro ini dengan Rupiah

I want to change these 100 Euros to Rupiahs

Places

bank bank

restoran restaurant

supermarket supermarket

hotel hotel

mall mall

halte bus bus shelter

rumah sakit hospital

kantor polisi police station

gereja church

masjid mosque

kantor pos post office

toko buku bookstore / bookshop

bar bar

kafe caf

kedai kopi coffeshop

bioskop cinema
5. Dating (lol)

Vada's note:

Muahaha.. Well for me there's nothing more interesting in learning languages than memorizing the romantic phrases.. (that's my opinion.. but people are different, aren't they?)

Maukah kamu pergi denganku Sabtu malam?

Do you want to go with me Saturday night?

Tentu, kemana kita akan pergi?

Sure, where will we go?

Bolehkah saya menjemputmu?

May I pick you up?

Terimakasih atas malam yang indah

Thank you for the wonderful night

Boleh saya cium kamu? Boleh saya memberimu sebuah ciuman?

May I kiss you? May I give you a kiss?

*And perhaps these phrases below are useful if you have an Indonesian boyfriend/girlfriend

Saya cinta padamu (formal)

Saya mencintaimu (whoa.. poetry-language)

Saya sayang kamu

Saya menyayangimu (again, poetry-language)

I love you

Saya rindu kamu

Saya merindukanmu (poetry-language really sounds romantic to Indonesian)

I miss you

Saya bermimpi tentangmu

Saya memimpikanmu (poetry-language is seldom used, because it's too beautiful to be said)

I dream of you

Saya berpikir tentangmu

Saya memikirkanmu (well, we love poetry-language..)

I think of you

*If you want to say it with 'very much' just add sangat before the verbs (and also before adjectives).


Here's some phrases I've taken from Russian.. but I translated them into English and Indonesian

My sun

Matahariku / mentariku

My dear

Sayangku

My bunny

Kelinciku

My sweet

Manisku

Come to me my dear

Kemarilah padaku, sayang

My love

Cintaku

Good girl

Gadis baik

Good boy

Pria baik

My little angel

Malaikat kecilku

Remember, I'm always next to you

Ingat, saya selalu di sampingmu

I'll do everything perfectly

Saya akan lakukan semua dengan baik

Don't worry

Jangan khawatir

Relax, i'll do that

Rileks, saya akan melakukannya

Let me do that

Biarkan saya melakukannya

Trust me

Percayalah padaku

Everything's gonna be alright

Semua akan baik-baik saja

You can do it

Kamu bisa melakukannya

I believe in you

Saya percaya padamu

I'll help you

Saya akan membantumu

You are not alone

Kamu tidak sendiri

I'm next to you

Saya di sampingmu

I'm here

Saya di sini

Darling, don't worry

Sayang, jangan khawatir

You're strong

Kamu sangat tangguh

We will do it

Kita akan melakukannya

Easy, everything is ok

Tenang, semua baik-baik saja

Everything is going all right

Semua baik-baik saja

It's normal

Itu normal


Marriage proposal

*In Indonesia, the person who usually gives the proposal is the man. So most of Indonesian women usually just 'wait and accept' or 'wait and refuse'.

I only know several phrases in marriage proposal to a woman.

I want you to be my wife.

Saya ingin kamu menjadi istriku

I love you very much and ask you to be my wife.

Saya sangat mencintaimu dan memintamu untuk menjadi istriku

All I pray for god is you to say "yes!"

Saya berdoa kepada Tuhan agar kamu berkata 'ya'

I wish it so badly!

Saya sangat mengharapkannya!

Be my wife!

Jadilah istriku!

Marry me!

Menikahlah denganku!

We are created for each other. Say "yes!"

Kita diciptakan untuk bersama. Katakan 'ya'.

I want us to always be together.

Saya ingin kita selalu bersama

Let's go through life together.

Mari hidup bersama

I want so badly that we have a real family.

Saya ingin kita berkeluarga

Let's create a real family.

Marilah berkeluarga

I want so much for you to marry me.

Saya ingin sekali kamu menikahi saya

We love each other so much!

Kita sangat mencintai satu sama lain

I love you so much.

Saya sangat mencintaimu

Finally I want to tell you this:

Akhirnya, saya ingin mengatakannya padamu:

I need you so much.

Saya sangat memerlukanmu

I can't live without you.

Saya tidak dapat hidup tanpamu

Say that you love me!

Katakan bahwa kamu mencintaiku

I feel so good next to you.

Saya senang bersamamu

You became everything for me!

Kamu adalah segalanya bagiku

I thank god that I met you.

Terimakasih Tuhan, saya bertemu denganmu

You are my destiny

Kamulah takdirku

I swear I'll give you my heart.

Saya bersumpah akan memberimu hatiku

I think of you day and night

Saya memikirkanmu siang dan malam

You are all that I need.

Kamulah yang kuperlukan

Am I deserving of your love?

Apa saya berhak atas cintamu?

Believe me.

Percayalah padaku

I am the happiest man on earth because I met you.

Saya adalah orang paling bahagia di dunia karena saya menemukanmu

I want you to be only mine.

Saya ingin kamu hanya milikku

Let's never part.

Jangan pernah berpisah

I love you

Saya cinta kamu. Saya mencintaimu. Saya sayang kamu. 

I can't live without you

Saya tidak dapat hidup tanpamu

I need you

Saya membutuhkanmu

I need you so much

Saya sangat membutuhkanmu

I wish you were mine

Kuharap kamu milikku

I love you with all my heart, with all my soul

Saya mencintaimu dengan sepenuh hatiku, dengan sepenuh jiwaku

There's no borders for my love

Tidak ada halangan bagi cintaku

There's no obstacles for our love

Tidak ada halangan bagi cinta kita

I fell in love with you from the first sight

Saya jatuh cinta padamu sejak pandangan pertama

Come to me, my love

Kemarilah padaku, cinta

All ages are dutiful to love

Semua umur berhak mencinta

I can't live without your love

Saya tidak dapat hidup tanpa cintamu 

Give me your love

Berikan saya cinta

I give you all my love

Saya memberimu seluruh cinta saya

There's no happiness without your love

Tidak ada kebahagiaan tanpa cintamu

I will always love you

Saya akan selalu mencintaimu

I want you to know - there's love in my heart

Saya ingin kamu mengetahui: ada cinta di hatiku

Our love won't disappear with years

Cinta kita tak akan hilang dimakan waktu

I am proud of our love

Saya bangga akan cinta kita


You are so beautiful

Kamu sangat cantik

You are so handsome

Kamu sangat tampan

You are so wonderful

Kamu sangat hebat

You are so splendid

Kamu sangat luar biasa

You are so exciting

Kamu sangat menarik

You are so lovely

Kamu sangat cantik

You are so pretty

Kamu sangat manis

You are so cute

Kamu sangat manis

You are so sweet

Kamu sangat manis

You are so sensitive

Kamu sangat sensitif

You are so talented

Kamu sangat berbakat

You are so wise

Kamu sangat bijaksana

You are so understanding

Kamu sangat pengertian

You are so soft

Kamu sangat lembut

You are so gentle

Kamu sangat lembut

You are so unusual

Kamu sangat luar biasa

You are so honest

Kamu sangat jujur

You are so kind

Kamu sangat baik

You are so open

Kamu sangat terbuka

You are so glamorous

Kamu sangat anggun

You are so faithful

Kamu sangat setia


Daily Phrases

Good morning. Morning.

Selamat pagi. Pagi

Good afternoon.

Selamat siang

Good evening.

Selamat sore

Good night.

Selamat malam

Hello. Hi.

Halo. Hai.

Welcome.

Selamat datang

How are you?

Apa kabar?

Not too well, I'm afraid.

Tidak terlalu bagus

How are you getting on?

Bagaimana kabarmu?

Pretty fair, thank you. And what about you?

Cukup baik, dan Anda?

Fine, and how are you?

Baik, dan kamu?

Not too bad.

Tidak buruk

Is everything all right?

Apakah semua baik-baik saja?

Are you ok?

Apakah kamu baik-baik saja?

How are things?

Bagaimana kabarnya?

What's new?

Apa kabar?

How is your family?

Bagaimana keluargamu?

How is your mother?

Bagaimana ibumu?

Are you o.k.?

Apakah kamu baik-baik saja?

Fine, thanks.

Baik, terimakasih

Very well.

Sangat baik

Not bad.

Tidak buruk

O.K.

Baik

Not so good.

Tiak terlalu baik

The same.

Sama-sama

A bit tired.

Sedikit lelah

I am busy.

Saya sibuk

I am not well.

Saya tidak sehat

And you?

Dan kamu?

I am sorry to hear that.

Maaf

I am happy for you.

Saya senang denganmu

Is this clear?

Apakah sudah jelas?

Pardon?

Permisi?

I'm sorry, what did you say?

Maaf, apa yang Anda katakan?

I see

Saya mengerti

Am I speaking fast?

Apakah saya berbicara cepat?

Do you understand me?

Apakah Anda mengerti saya?

I don't understand you.

Saya tidak mengerti Anda

I understand you.

Saya mengerti Anda

I quite understand you.

Saya cukup mengerti Anda

I understand you quite well.

Saya mengerti Anda cukup baik

I understand every word you say.

Saya mengerti setiap kata yang Anda ucapkan

Yes, perfectly well.

Ya, sangat baik

Speak louder, please.

Berbicaralah lebih keras

Please, speak slower.

Berbicaralah lebih pelan

I'm sorry, I didn't quite catch what you said.

Maaf, saya tidak mengerti apa yang Anda katakan

Write it down, please.

Tolong tuliskan

Translate it.

Terjemahkan

Please, say it again.

Tolong ulangi

How do you say that in english?

Bagaimana kata itu dalam bahasa Inggris?

We need an interpreter.

Kita butuh penerjemah

We don't need an interpreter.

Kita tidak butuh penerjemah

I must be going.

Saya harus pergi

Good-bye.

Daag (daah)

See you soon.

Sampai jumpa lagi

So long.

Sampai jumpa

See you again.

Sampai jumpa lagi

See you later.

Sampai jumpa

Cheerio / Bye!

Daag!

Good luck!

Sukses!

Give my regards to..

Salam untuk..

I hope to see you soon.

Saya harap kita bertemu lain kali

I'll call you later.

Saya akan meneleponmu

Have a comfortable journey! (good-bye)

Selamat jalan!

Keep well!

Sehat selalu!

Take care!

Hati-hati!

Till we meet again.

Sampai bertemu lagi (sampai jumpa lagi)

Write me.

Kabari aku

Here's my address.

Ini alamat saya

Have a success!

Sukses!

Sweet dreams!

Mimpi indah

Be happy!

Bergembiralah



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