Spanish IV Tutorial: Basic Phrases, Vocabulary and Grammar

                    

NEW! Authentic Spanish offers short video clips of real, spoken Spanish in various accents with transcripts so you can listen and read along.

I am updating the tutorials with more vocabulary and regional variations (and moving some sections around), so the mp3s may not match exactly with what is written.

 


61. Object Pronouns

Subject Direct Indirect Disjunctive (after prepositions)
yo I me me me to me me
tú / vos you te you te to you ti / vos you
él he/it lo him/it le (se) to him/it él, ello, sí him/it
ella she/it la her/it le (se) to her/it ella, ello, sí her/it
Usted you lo, la you le (se) to you Usted, sí you
nosotros / nosotras we nos us nos to us nosotros / nosotras us
vosotros / vosotras you os you os to you vosotros / vosotras you
Ustedes you los, las you les (se) to you Ustedes, sí you
ellos / ellas they los, las them les (se) to them ellos / ellas, sí them
  1. An object pronoun generally precedes the conjugated verb, except if is used in an affirmative command, with an infinitive or gerund.  Then it is attached to the verb as one word.  me Ud. el libro.  Give me the book.

  2. When you have more than one pronoun, the indirect comes before the direct.  If both pronouns begin with the letter l, then the first one (the indirect pronoun) is changed to se. I gave it to him is se lo di not le lo di.

  3. When one or two object pronouns follow and are attached to the verb form, an accent mark must be added to retain the original stress of the word.

  4. For clearness or emphasis, the prepositional form of a plus a disjunctive pronoun may be used.  Nos envió a Ud.  He sent us to you. Me lo dio a mí. He gave it to me.

  5. Notice that the direct and indirect object forms for vos are both te.

  6. Ello is also used as a neuter disjunctive pronoun meaning it.   can mean yourself, himself, herself, yourselves or themselves.  When con combines with mí, ti or , the words become conmigo, contigo and consigo.  The forms of mismo (-a, -os, -as) can be added to these pronouns to express -self.

  7. In Spain, le and les are used as direct object pronouns in place of lo and los, but only when they refer to people, not things. This is called leísmo and its use corresponds to the same geographic region where vosotros is used in Spain (in northern and central regions.)


62. Parts of the Body

 

ankle el tobillo fever la fiebre pain el dolor
arm el brazo finger el dedo nose la nariz
artery la arteria fist el puño palm la palma
back la espalda flesh la carne pulse el pulso
beard la barba foot el pie rib la costilla
belly el vientre forehead la frente shin la espinilla
bladder la vejiga gum la encía shoulder el hombro
blood la sangre hair el cabello / el pelo skeleton el esqueleto
body el cuerpo hand la mano skin la piel
bone el hueso head la cabeza skull el cráneo
brain el cerebro health la salud sole la planta
breast el seno heart el corazón spine la espina dorsal
breath el aliento heel el talón stomach el estómago
calf la pantorrilla hip la cadera tear la lágrima
cheek la mejilla intestine el intestino temple la sien
chest el pecho jaw la quijada thigh el muslo
chin la barba / la barbilla kidney el riñón throat la garganta
coccyx el coxis knee la rodilla thumb el pulgar
cold el resfriado leg la pierna toe el dedo del pie
complexion la tez lip el labio tongue la lengua
cough la tos liver el hígado tooth el diente
disease la enfermedad lung el pulmón vein la vena
ear la oreja moustache el bigote wound le herida
elbow el codo mouth la boca waist la cintura
eye el ojo muscle el músculo wrist la muñeca
eyebrow la ceja nail la uña    
eyelid el párpado neck el cuello    
face la cara nerve el nervio    

To express pain, use an indirect object pronoun + duele(n) + body part.

Me duele la cabeza.  My head hurts.
Le duelen los pies.  His feet hurt.


63. Asking Questions

 

Simply raise your voice at the end of the sentence.
Place the predicate in front of the subject of the sentence.
Add no? or verdad? or no es verdad? to the end of the statement.  These translate to many phrases in English, such as Isn't it?  Aren't you?  Don't you?  Didn't he?  Isn't she? etc.


64. To Give and to Bring

dar - to give
  present: give(s) preterite: gave imperfect: gave future: will give
(yo) doy      
(tú / vos) das      
(él / ella / usted) da      
(nosotros / nosotras) damos      
(vosotros / vosotras ) dais      
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

dan      
     
traer - to bring
  present: bring(s) preterite: brought imperfect: brought future: will bring
(yo) traigo      
(tú / vos) traes      
(él / ella / usted) trae      
(nosotros / nosotras) traemos      
(vosotros / vosotras ) traéis      
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

traen      

 


65. Relative Pronouns

A relative pronoun connects a dependent clause to a main clause and refers to something already mentioned (the antecedent.)  This pronoun may be the subject or object of a verb, or the object of a preposition.  Que and quien are the most commonly used relative pronouns.

Que (who, whom, that, which) refers to persons or things, except after a preposition, when it refers to things only.  El que (and its forms - la que, los que, las que) and el cual (and its forms - la cual, los cuales, las cuales) may replace que or quien.  These pronouns are used to avoid ambiguity when there are two antecedents, and with prepositions.

La casa en que vivo es pequeña.  The house in which I live is small.
He visitado la ciudad cerca de la cual vive.  I visited the city near which he lives.

Quien (-es) (who, whom) is often used in place of el que and its forms, when it means one who, those who, etc.

Lo que and lo cual (that which, what) refer to the whole sentence.

Cuyo (-a, -os, -as) is a possessive adjective (whose) and it agrees in gender and number with the thing possessed, which is always the word that follows it.


66.

 

 


67. To Hear, to Smell and to See

 
  present: preterite: imperfect: future:
(yo)        
(tú / vos)        
(él / ella / usted)        
(nosotros / nosotras)        
(vosotros / vosotras )        
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

       
     
 
  present: preterite: imperfect: future:
(yo)        
(tú / vos)        
(él / ella / usted)        
(nosotros / nosotras)        
(vosotros / vosotras )        
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

       

oír - to hear oler - to smell ver - to see
oigo
oyes
oye
oímos
oís
oyen
huelo
hueles
huele
olemos
oléis
huelen
veo
ves
ve
vemos
veis
ven


68. Animals

 

animal el animal lark la alomdra
ant la hormiga lion el león
antelope el antílope lizard el lagarto
antenna la antena lobster (spiny) la langosta
antler el asta louse el piojo
badger el tejón mackerel la caballa
bat el murciélago mole el topo
beak el pico monkey el mono
bear el oso mosquito el mosquito
bee la abeja moth la polilla
beetle el escarabajo mouse el ratón
bird el pájaro mule el mulo
blackbird el mirlo mussel el mejillón
bull el toro nest el nido
butterfly la mariposa nightingale el ruiseñor
calf el ternero octopus el pulpo
carp la carpa ostrich el avestruz
cat el gato owl el buho
caterpillar la oruga ox el buey
cheetah el guepardo oyster la ostra
chicken el pollo parrot el loro
chimpanzee el chimpancé partridge la perdiz
claw la zarpa paw la pata
cockroach la cucaracha penguin el pingüino
cod el bacalao pig el cerdo
cocoon el capullo pigeon el pichón
cow la vaca pike el sollo
crab el cangrejo pony el potro
crayfish el cangrejo rabbit el conejo
crocodile el cocodrilo raccoon el mapache
crow el cuervo rat la rata
deer el ciervo rooster el gallo
dog el perro salmon el salmón
donkey el burro scale la escama
dragonfly la libélula scorpion el escorpión
duck el pato sea gull la gaviota
eagle el águila (f) seahorse el caballito de mar
eel el anguila seal la foca
egg el huevo shark el tiburón
elephant el elefante sheep la oveja
feather la pluma shrimp la gamba
fin la aleta skin la piel
fish el pez slug la babosa
flea la pulga snail el caracol
fly la mosca snake la serpiente / la culebra
fox el zorro sole el lenguado
frog la rana sparrow el gorrión
fur el pelo spider la araña
gill la branquia squid el calamar
giraffe la jirafa squirrel la ardilla
goat la cabra starfish la estrella de mar
goose el ganso stork la cigüeña
gorilla el gorila swallow la golondrina
grasshopper el saltamontes swan el cisne
hamster la marmota tadpole el renacuajo
hare la liebre tail la cola
hedgehog el erizo tiger el tigre
hen la gallina toad el sapo
heron la garza trout la trucha
herring el arenque tuna el atún
hoof la pezuña turkey el pavo
horn el cuerno turtle la tortuga
horse el caballo wasp la avispa
hummingbird el colibri weasel la comadreja
iguana la iguana whale la ballena
insect el insecto wing el ala (f)
jellyfish la medusa wolf el lobo
kitten el gatito worm el gusano
ladybug la catarina zebra la cebra
lamb el cordero    


69. Suffixes

 

Suffixes may be attached to nouns, adjectives or adverbs.  Unaccented vowels should be dropped before adding the suffixes.  The most common suffixes are -ito (a) and -cito (a).  They express size, affection, admiration, appreciation or pity.  The ending -ero (a) indicates the maker or dealer in charge of something.  To indicate where something is made or sold, add -ería.  When -eza and -ura are added to adjectives, they express abstract nouns.  When -dor is added to a verb (minus the final letter), it indicates the performer of the action.

 


70. Subjunctive Mood

 

The subjunctive is not used very often in English, but it is very common and important in Spanish. Some command forms are actually the subjunctive, so the formation of the present subjunctive should not be too difficult. Start with the first person singular yo conjugation in the present indicative tense, remove the final -o and add these endings:

Present Subjunctive

  -ar verbs -er and -ir verbs
(yo) -e
-a
(tú / vos) -es -as
(él / ella / usted) -e -a
(nosotros / nosotras) -emos -amos
(vosotros / vosotras ) -éis -áis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

-en -an

(Notice that -ar verbs use -e and -er/-ir verbs use -a)

Usually when there is an irregular spelling change in the present indicative of a verb, that form will be used for the stem of all of the subjunctive forms. (Review #29 from Spanish I) Verbs than end in -erir, -ertir, or -entir use two different irregular spellings in the present subjunctive:

mentir in present subjunctive
(yo) mienta
(tú / vos) mientas
(él / ella / usted) mienta
(nosotros / nosotras) mintamos
(vosotros / vosotras ) mintáis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

mientan

 

The imperfect subjunctive is formed from the third person plural of the preterite. Remove the -on ending, leaving you with either -ar and -ier at the end of the stem, and add these endings:

Imperfect Subjunctive

all verbs
(yo) -a
(tú / vos) -as
(él / ella / usted) -a
(nosotros / nosotras) -amos
(vosotros / vosotras ) -ais
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

-an

 

An accent is added to the stem vowel as well in the first person plural form. Instead of hablaramos, it is habláramos; instead of comieramos, it is comiéramos, etc. Note that there is another way to form the imperfect subjunctive (a different set of endings), but the endings given above are used more often. [For the other form of the imperfect subjunctive, replace -ra- in all conjugations above with -se-] A future subjunctive also exists though it is rarely used nowadays. You may come across it in writing, however. Its conjugations only differ from the imperfect subjunctive above in that a is replaced by e.

You must always the imperfect subjunctive after como si.

Es como si fuera mi padre. It's as if he were my father.

The present perfect subjunctive is formed with the present subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb. Similarly, the past perfect subjunctive is formed with the past subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb.

Present perfect subjunctive
Past perfect subjunctive
haya
hayas
haya
hayamos
hayáis
hayan
+ past participle hubiera
hubieras
hubiera
hubiéramos
hubierais
hubieran
+ past participle

You must always pay attention to the correct usage of verb tenses. When the verb of the main clause is in the present or future, then the verb of the subordinating clause will be in the present subjunctive. But if the verb in the main clause is in a past tense, the verb of the subordinating clause will be in the imperfect subjunctive.


71. Irregular Subjunctive Mood

Many verbs are considered irregular in the present subjunctive mood. However, only six verbs (marked in grey below) do not follow the pattern described above when starting with the yo conjugation of the indicative. Nevertheless, these verbs are still somewhat easy to remember even if they don't follow the pattern because the imperative form will help you determine the stem to use for the subjunctive conjugation.

dar - to give
decir - to say/tell
estar - to be

des
demos
deis
den
diga
digas
diga
digamos
digáis
digan
esté
estés
esté
estemos
estéis
estén
haber - to have
hacer - to do/make
ir - to go
haya
hayas
haya
hayamos
hayáis
hayan
haga
hagas
haga
hagamos
hagáis
hagan
vaya
vayas
vaya
vayamos
vayáis
vayan
poder - to be able to
poner - to put/place
querer - to want
pueda
puedas
pueda
podamos
podáis
puedan
ponga
pongas
ponga
pongamos
pongáis
pongan
quiera
quieras
quiera
queramos
queráis
quieran
saber - to know
salir - to go out
ser - to be
sepa
sepas
sepa
sepamos
sepáis
sepan
salga
salgas
salga
salgamos
salgáis
salgan
sea
seas
sea
seamos
seáis
sean
tener - to have
traer - to bring
venir - to come
tenga
tengas
tenga
tengamos
tengáis
tengan
traiga
traigas
traiga
traigamos
traigáis
traigan
venga
vengas
venga
vengamos
vengáis
vengan

 

Many verbs are irregular in the past subjunctive as well:

dar - to give
decir - to say/tell
estar - to be
diera
dieras
diera
diéramos
dierais
dieran
dijera
dijeras
dijera
dijéramos
dijerais
dijeran
estuviera
estuvieras
estuviera
estuviéramos
estuvierais
estuvieran
haber - to have
hacer - to do/make
ir - to go
hubiera
hubieras
hubiera
hubiéramos
hubierais
hubieran
hiciera
hicieras
hiciera
hiciéramos
hicierais
hicieran
fuera
fueras
fuera
fuéramos
fuerais
fueran
poder - to be able to
poner - to put/place
querer - to want
pudiera
pudieras
pudiera
pudiéramos
pudierais
pudieran
pusiera
pusieras
pusiera
pusiéramos
pusierais
pusieran
quisiera
quisieras
quisiera
quisiéramos
quisierais
quisieran
saber - to know
ser - to be
tener - to have
supiera
supieras
supiera
supiéramos
supierais
supieran
fuera
fueras
fuera
fuéramos
fuerais
fueran
tuviera
tuvieras
tuviera
tuviéramos
tuvierais
tuvieran
traer - to bring
venir - to come
trajera
trajeras
trajera
trajéramos
trajerais
trajeran
viniera
vinieras
viniera
viniéramos
vinierais
vinieran
   


72. Uses of the Subjunctive

 

The main uses of the subjunctive include (generally, que will follow the verb):

1. After the verbs querer and desear (to want) when there is a change of subject (but use the infinitive if there is no change of subject)

2. When one person tells (decir) or asks (pedir) another person to do something.

3. After verbs of emotion or command, such as esperar (to hope), sentir (to be sorry), temer (to fear), alegrarse (to be glad), mandar (to order), rogar (to request), when there is a change of subject.

4. After dudar (to doubt) and other verbs expressing uncertainty (negative of creer), as well as after quizás, tal vez and acaso (maybe) to reinforce the idea of doubt.

5. After most impersonal expressions, such as es posible que / puede que (it's possible), es importante que (it's important), es necesario que / hace falta (it's necessary) if there is a subject for the subordinate verb.

6. In adjective clauses is the antecedent is indefinite

7. After certain conjunctions, such as para que (in order that), sin que (without), and antes que (before)

8. After time conjunctions, such as cuando (when), en cuanto (as soon as), hasta que (until), when future is implied.

9. After que in expressions of wishes or desires: Que aproveche! Have a good meal!

10. To translate the future tense in subordinating clause: Cuando sea mayor iré a España. When I'm older, I will go to Spain.

In contrary-to-fact conditions, the past subjunctive must be used in the if-clause (and the main clause is in a conditional tense)

 


73. Adverbs

 

Most adverbs are formed by adding -mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective.  However, two common adverbs that do not end in -mente are despacio (slowly) and demasiado (too much).

Adjective Adverb
correcto
fácil
claro
absoluto
rápido
correctamente
fácilmente
claramente
absolutamente
rápidamente
correctly
easily
clearly
absolutely
rapidly

 

Lo + adverb + que expresses how, while lo más + adverb + an expression of possibility is translated:  as ... as ...

lo bien que  how well
lo más pronto posible  as soon as possible


74. Passive Voice

In passive sentences, the subject receives the action of the verb.  In active sentences, the subject does the action.  However, the meaning of both sentences is the same.  The passive voice in Spanish is formed with a tense of ser and a past participle.  Ser should be in the same tense as the verb in its corresponding active sentence.  The agent is expressed by por if the action is physical; and by de if mental.  The past participle agrees in gender and number with the subject.  If you use estar instead of ser, the past participle is called the predicate adjective and it is not a passive sentence.

Active El viento destruye la casa. The wind destroys the house.
Passive La casa fue destruida por el viento. The house was destroyed by the wind.
Predicate Adjective Cuando la vi, la casa estaba destruida. When I saw it, the house was destroyed.


El niño fue castigado por su padre.
 The boy was punished by his father.
Rosa es amada por todos.  Rose is loved by everyone.


75. Uses of the Infinitive

 

The infinitive is translated as a gerund (the -ing form of the verb) after these words: el, al, a preposition, ver or oír.

El correr es un buen ejercicio. Running is good exercise.
Partió sin hablar. He left without speaking.
Oigo cantar a Maria. I hear Maria singing.

 


76. Shopping

 

department store el almacén shop/store la tienda
shopping mall el centro comercial (open-air) market el mercado (al aire libre)
belt el cinturón (fixed) price el precio (fijo)
glasses las gafas sale la rebaja
gloves los guantes to bargain regatear
sunglasses los lentes de sol to spend money gastar

 

In Latin America, a cell phone is el celular. In Spain, it is el móvil.


77. Post Office and Bank

post office el correo bank el banco
envelope el sobre (traveler's) check el cheque (de viajero)
mailbox el buzón to cash (a check) cobrar
mail carrier el cartero to save (money) ahorrar
stamps las estampillas to deposit depositar
package el paquete account la cuenta


79. Infinitives followed by Prepositions

The following verbs require a, de, en or con when followed by another infinitive, although the preposition is not always translated into English.

Verb + a + another infinitive Verb + de + another infinitive
acostumbrarse
aprender
atreverse
ayudar
comenzar
convidar
decidirse
dedicarse
empezar
enseñar
invitar
ir
negarse
persuadir
principiar
rehusar
resignarse
resistirse
resolverse
venir
volver
to become used to
to learn to
to dare to
to help
to begin to
to invite to
to decide to
to devote oneself to
to begin to
to teach to
to invite
to go to
to refuse to
to persuade to
to begin to
to refuse to
to resign oneself to
to resist
to resolve to
to come to
to return to
acabar
acordarse
alegrarse
aprovecharse
arrepentirse
cansarse
cesar
dejar
encargarse
gozar
jactarse
olvidarse
tratar








to have just
to remember
to be glad to
to profit by
to repent
to tire of
to cease
to cease
to take charge of
to take pleasure in
to boast of
to forget to
to try to







Verb + en + another infinitive
Verb + con + another infinitive
consentir
consistir
divertirse
empeñarse
esforzarse
insistir
ocuparse
pensar
persistir
tardar
to consent to
to consist
to amuse oneself
to insist on
to endeavor to
to insist on
to busy oneself
to think of
to persist in
to delay in
contar
contentarse
soñar







to count on
to content oneself with
to dream of







80. Office / School Supplies

pencil el lápiz dictionary el diccionario
eraser la goma tape (audio) la cinta
pen la pluma map el mapa
ink la tinta newspaper el periódico
paper el papel novel la novela
letter la carta backpack la mochila
notebook el cuaderno stapler la grapadora
book el libro scissors unas tijeras

 

La tarea is used in Latin America, while el deber is used in Spain. The singular refers to an assignment and the plural is homework.

 


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