Spanish III Tutorial: Basic Phrases, Vocabulary and Grammar

                    


Learn Spanish phrases, vocabulary, and grammar online for free with audio recordings by native speakers - ielanguages.com Buy Spanish Language Tutorial as a PDF e-book! Spanish Language Tutorial includes a complete vocabulary and grammar review of the Spanish language (much more than what is available online), transcripts of authentic Spanish videos, and Spanish realia photos. The PDF e-book and mp3s - including nearly two hours of recordings by five native speakers from three countries - are available for immediate download with FREE lifetime updates. Thank you for supporting ielanguages.com! Download the first ten pages of Spanish Language Tutorial (including the table of contents).

Buy Spanish Language Tutorial


To download the updated mp3s, please purchase Spanish Language Tutorial!

41. Useful Expressions

hay there is / are
había there was / were
hay que + infinitive it is necessary to + infinitive
tener que + infinitive to have to / must + infinitive
tener ganas de + infinitive to want to + infinitive
ir a + infinitive to be going to + infinitive
acabar de + infinitive to have just + past participle
hace + time time + ago
volver a + infinitive to do (infinitive) again
seguir + present participle to go on, continue + present participle / still + infinitive

Tienen que descansar. They have to rest.
Te sigo amando. I still love you.
No lo voy a volver a ver. I'm not going to see him again.


42. Progressive Tenses

The progressive tense indicates an action that is ongoing.  It is formed by using estar (in any tense) with a present participle.  Present participles are formed by dropping the ending of the verb, and adding the following endings to the stem:

Present Participles
-ar -ando
-er -iendo
-ir -iendo


Juan está hablando.
 Juan is talking.
Estaban cantando.  They were singing.
Estuve escribiendo una carta.  I was writing a letter.

A few irregular present participles are: poder - pudiendo, dormir - durmiendo, sentir - sintiendo, venir - viniendo, pedir - pidiendo, leer - leyendo, ir - yendo, reír - riendo.


43. Haber

haber - to have (auxiliary verb)
  present: have, has preterite: had imperfect: had future: will have
(yo) he
hube había habré
(tú / vos) has hubiste habías habrás
(él / ella / usted) ha hubo había habrá
(nosotros / nosotras) hemos hubimos habíamos habremos
(vosotros / vosotras ) habéis hubisteis habíais habréis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

han hubieron habían habrán

 

This verb does not mean to possess (that is tener); but it is used in perfect tenses as an auxiliary verb.


44. Present & Past Perfect

The present perfect tense is a compound tense using haber with a past participle.  (Haber is only used as a helping verb; it is never used to show possession.)  This tense can be translated as "have/has + past participle."  Please note that the preterite tense is used more often than the present perfect when expressing the past, especially in Latin America.

Past participles are formed by dropping the infinitive ending, and adding these endings:

Past Participles
-ar
-er
-ir
-ado
-ido
-ido

 

The following verbs have irregular past participles:  abrir (to open) - abierto (opened); escribir (to write) - escrito (written); morir (to die) - muerto (died); poner (to put) - puesto (put); ver (to see) - visto (seen); volver (to return) - vuelto (returned); decir (to say) - dicho (said); hacer (to do) - hecho (done).

No han vendido la casa.  They have not sold the house.
Dónde ha puesto Ud. la llave?  Where have you put the key?
Hemos ganado mucho dinero.  We have earned a lot of money.
Qué ha dicho Ud.?  What did you say?

 

The past perfect tense corresponds to the English "had + past participle."  It indicates an event that happened prior to another event in the past.  It consists of the imperfect of haber and a past participle.  Sometimes the preterite of haber is used, but the imperfect is more common.

 

Carlos había vivido en México.  Carlos had lived in Mexico.
Habíamos aprendido el español.  We had learned Spanish.


45. Places

 

airport el aeropuerto inn la posada
bakery la panadería lane (town) la calleja
bank el banco library la biblioteca
bar el bar market el mercado
barn el granero ministry el ministerio
barracks el cuartel monument el monumento
bench el banco museum el museo
bridge el puente palace el palacio
bookstore la librería path la senda
building el edificio pavement la acera
butcher's la carnicería pharmacy la farmacia
castle el castillo pier el muelle
cathedral la catedral police station la comisaría
cemetery el cementerio port el puerto
church la iglesia prison la prisión
cinema el cine restaurant el restaurante
consulate el consulado road (highway) la carretera / la vía
corner la esquina school la escuela
courtyard el patio sidewalk la acera
crosswalk el cruce peatonal square la plaza
dock la dársena stable la cuadra
dry cleaner's la tintorería stadium el estadio
embassy la embajada stop sign la señal de alto
factory la fábrica store la tienda
farm la granja street la calle
fire hydrant la boca de agua suburb el barro residencial
fountain la fuente theater el teatro
garage el garaje tower la torre
grocery store el supermercado town la ciudad
hospital el hospital town hall el ayuntamiento
hotel el hotel traffic light el semáforo
house la casa university la universidad
hut la cabaña village el pueblo

In Mexico, the square in many towns is called el zócalo.

Addresses in the Spanish-speaking world use the name of the street first, then the number of the building.


46. Transportation

 

by bus en autobús
by bicycle en bicicleta
by car en carro / en coche
by motorcycle en motocicleta
by subway en metro
by taxi en taxi
by plane en avión
by train en tren
by boat en barco
on foot a pie

El carro is used in Latin America and el coche is used in Spain. In addition, the verb to drive is manejar in Latin America but conducir in Spain.

Bus can also be la guagua (Cuba), la camioneta (Colombia and Venezuela) or el camión (Mexico) - but el camión means truck in other countries. A longer bus in Cuba is el camello and in Mexico it is el gusano.


47. To Want, to Be Able to, to Have to

querer - to want
  present: want(s) preterite: wanted imperfect: wanted future: will want
(yo) quiero quise quería querré
(tú / vos) quieres / querés quisiste querías querrás
(él / ella / usted) quiere quiso quería querrá
(nosotros / nosotras) queremos quisimos queríamos querremos
(vosotros / vosotras ) queréis quisisteis queríais querréis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

quieren quisieron querían querrán
poder - to be able to, can
  present: am/is/are able to; can preterite: was/were able to; could imperfect: was/were able to; could future: will be able to
(yo) puedo pude podía podré
(tú / vos) puedes / podés pudiste podías podrás
(él / ella / usted) puede pudo podía podrá
(nosotros / nosotras) podemos pudimos podíamos podremos
(vosotros / vosotras ) podéis pudisteis podíais podréis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

pueden pudieron podían podrán
deber - to have to, must
  present: has/have to; must preterite: had to imperfect: had to future: will have to
(yo) debo debí debía deberé
(tú / vos) debes / debés debiste debías derberás
(él / ella / usted) debe debió debía deberá
(nosotros / nosotras) debemos debimos debíamos deberemos
(vosotros / vosotras ) debéis debisteis debíais deberéis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

deben debieron debían deberán

Querer and poder, as well as saber, tener and entender, are used in the imperfect when there are simultaneous actions or an interrupted action in the past. The preterite is used when an action suddenly happened.

Another form of querer that is quite useful is the imperfect subjunctive. This conjugation can translate to would like + noun or infinitive, so it is handy to know for making requests and being polite.

would like
(yo) quisiera
(tú / vos) quisieras
(él / ella / usted) quisiera
(nosotros / nosotras) quisiéramos
(vosotros / vosotras ) quisierais
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

quisieran

 


48. House & Furniture

alarm clock el despertador hook el gancho
armchair el sillón house la casa
ashtray el cenicero iron (flat) la plancha
attic el desván kerosene el petróleo
balcony el balcón key la llave
basement el sótano kitchen la cocina
basket la cesta ladder la escalera
bathroom el baño lamp la lámpara
bathtub la bañera lawn el césped
batteries las pilas light bulb la bombilla
bed la cama living room la sala
bedroom la alcoba / el dormitorio lock la cerradura
bell (door) la campanilla mailbox el buzón
blanket la cobija matches las cerillas
blinds la persiana mattress el colchón
bookcase la librería microwave oven el horno microondas
box la caja mirror el espejo
broom la escoba oven el horno
bucket el balde pantry la despensa
camcorder la cámara picture el cuadro
camera la máquina de fotos pillow la almohada
candle la vela pipe (smoking) la pipa
carpet la alfombra pipe (water) el tubo
cassette la cinta poker el atizador
CD player el lector de CD radio la radio
ceiling el techo record el disco
chair la silla refrigerator el refrigerador
chimney la chimenea roof el tejado
cigar el puro / el cigarro room el cuarto
cigarette el cigarrillo rug la alfombra
clock el reloj sheet la sábana
closet el armario shelf el estante
compact disc el disco compacto shovel la pala
computer la computadora shower la ducha
corner el rincón sideboard el aparador
cupboard la alacena sink el fregadero
curtain la cortina sink (bathroom) el lavabo
cushion el cojín sitting room la sala
desk el escritorio smoke el humo
dining room el comedor sofa el sofá
door la puerta stairs las escaleras
drawer el cajón steps los escalones
dresser el tocador story el piso
driveway la entrada del garaje stove la estufa
DVD player el lector de DVD study el estudio
fence la cerca switch el conmutador
film la película table la mesa
fire el fuego tap (faucet) el grifo
flame la llama telephone el teléfono
flashlight la linterna television el televisor
flat el apartamento toaster la tostadora
floor el suelo toilet (WC) el inodoro
floor (levels) el piso / la planta towel la toalla
flower la flor vacuum cleaner el aspirador
freezer el congelador vase el jarrón
front walk la vereda VCR el magnetoscopio
furniture los muebles wall (house) el muro
garage el garaje wall (room) la pared
garden el jardín window la ventana
ground floor la planta baja yard el jardín
hearth la chimenea    


49. Comparative & Superlative

Comparisons are expressed as follows:

más [adjective] que
more [adjective] than
menos [adjective] que less [adjective] than
tan [adjective] como as [adjective] as
tanto (-a, -os, -as) [noun] como as much/many [noun] as

 

El gato es menos inteligente que el perro.  The cat is less intelligent than the dog.
Mi prima tiene más discos que nadie.  My cousin has more records than anyone.
No tengo tanto dinero como ustedes.  I don't have as much money as you.

To form comparatives, just add más or menos before the adjective or adverb.  To form the superlative, place the definite article before the comparative.  Note that de is used to express in after a superlative.

más alta  taller
la más alta  the tallest
Rosa es la niña más alta de la clase.  Rosa is the tallest girl in the class.


50. Irregular Forms

Some adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative forms.  The most common are:

Adjective/Adverb Comparative Superlative
good

bueno

better

mejor the best el mejor
bad malo worse peor the worst el peor
great grande greater mayor the greatest el mayor
small pequeño less menor the least el menor
well bien better mejor best el mejor
badly mal worse peor worst el peor
much mucho more más most el más
little poco less menos least el menos

 

Note that the bueno and malo change according to gender and number while grande and pequeño change according to gender.  The adverbs (the last four) do not agree with the noun.


51. Clothing

apron el delantal pants los pantalones
barrette el pasador pin el alfiler
bathrobe la bata pocket el bolsillo
belt el cinturón purse el bolso
blouse la blusa raincoat el impermeable
boot la bota ring el anillo
bracelet la pulsera sandals las sandalias
brush un cepillo del pelo scarf la bufanda
buckle la hebilla shirt la camisa
button el botón shoe el zapato
cap el gorro shoelace el cordón
clothes la ropa shorts los pantalones cortos
coat el abrigo silk la seda
collar el cuello skirt la falda
comb el peine sleeve la manga
cotton el algodón slippers las pantuflas
dress el vestido soap el jabón
earmuffs las orejaras sock los calcetines
earrings el arete stocking la media
fashion la moda suit el traje
glasses los lentes sunglasses las gafas de sol
glove el guante suspenders los tirantes
handbag el bolso sweater el jersey
handkerchief el pañuelo sweatsuit el chándal
hat el sombrero swimsuit el traje de baño
jacket la cazadora tie la corbata
jeans los vaqueros T-shirt la camiseta
mittens los mitones umbrella el paraguas
necklace el collar underwear la ropa interior
nightgown el camisón waistcoat el chaleco
overcoat el sobretodo watch el reloj
pajamas los pijamas wool la lana


52. To Wear

llevar - to wear
  present: wear(s) preterite: wore imperfect: wore future: will wear
(yo) llevo llevé llevaba llevaré
(tú / vos) llevas llevaste llevabas llevarás
(él / ella / usted) lleva llevó llevaba llevará
(nosotros / nosotras) llevamos llevamos llevábamos llevaremos
(vosotros / vosotras ) lleváis llevasteis llevabais llevaréis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

llevan llevaron llevaban llevarán
     
ponerse - to put on
  present: put(s) on preterite: put on imperfect: put on future: will put on
(yo) me pongo me puse me ponía me pondré
(tú / vos) te pones / te ponés te pusiste te ponías te pondrás
(él / ella / usted) se pone se puso se ponía se pondrá
(nosotros / nosotras) nos ponemos nos pusimos nos poníamos nos pondremos
(vosotros / vosotras ) os ponéis os pusisteis os poníais os pondréis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

se ponen se pusieron se ponían se pondrán

 

Use the definite article rather than possessive pronouns when referring to parts of the body or clothing.

Llevar has many other translations in English: to carry, bring, take, bear, lead, drive, run, etc.


53. Future Tense

The future of regular verbs (will + infinitive in English) is formed by adding the following endings to the infinitive of all verbs:

(yo)
(tú / vos) -ás
(él / ella / usted)
(nosotros / nosotras) -emos
(vosotros / vosotras ) -éis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

-án

 

Many verbs use irregular stems in the future tense, but they still use the regular endings from above:

caber (to fit) cabr- cabré I will fit
decir (to say, tell) dir- dirás you will tell
haber (to have) habr- habrá s/he will have
hacer (to do, make) har- haremos we will do
poder (to be able) podr- podréis you will be able to
poner (to put, place) pondr- pondrán they will put
querer (to want) querr- querré I will want
saber (to know) sabr- sabrás you will know
salir (to leave, go out) saldr- saldrá s/he will leave
tener (to have, to own) tendr- tendremos we will have
valer (to be worth) valdr- valdréis you will be worth
venir (to come) vendr- vendrán they will come


54. Conditional

The conditional expresses an idea that is dependent on a something else. It can also refer to the past when it expresses probability. It is usually translated by would + infinitive in English, i.e. I would go to Mexico but I don't have enough money. Although would + infinitive is often used in English to talk about past actions as a substitute for used to (When we were young, we would/used to go to the lake every weekend), this usage is not the conditional but rather the imperfect.

To form the present conditional, add these endings to the infinitive for all verbs. Verbs that had irregular stems in the future tense also use that stem for the conditional tense. You will notice that these endings are the same as for the imperfect. The difference is that the conditional adds them to the infinitive, whereas the imperfect adds them to the stem.

(yo) -ía
(tú / vos) -ías
(él / ella / usted) -ía
(nosotros / nosotras) -íamos
(vosotros / vosotras ) -íais
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

-ían


Notice that for half of the conjugations, the -í- is the only distinguishing sound between the future and conditional: sabrá = he will know vs. sabría = he would know

Yo diría la verdad. I would tell the truth.


 

55. Adjectives

Adjectives must agree in gender (masculine or feminine) and number (singular or plural) with the noun they describe, and they are placed after the noun.

In general, masculine adjectives end in -o and feminine adjectives end in -a: blanco and blanca (white).

Adjectives that end in -ín, -án, -ón, -dor, -tor and -sor in the masculine will add an -a for the feminine.

Adjectives that end in -ete for the masculine will end in -eta for the feminine.

Adjectives of nationality add -a to the masculine to form the feminine: francés - francesa (French).Notice that when you add -a, the adjective is no longer written with an accent.

To form the plural of adjectives, follow the same rules for forming the plural of nouns.

Most adjectives follow the noun they describe, but the following adjectives drop the final -o if placed before a masculine noun in the singular: bueno - good; malo - bad; alguno - some; ninguno - no, any; uno - one; primero - first; tercero - third

When grande means great, it precedes the noun and drops the -de before a singular noun of either gender.  Santo (saint) drops the -to before all masculine nouns, except those beginning with Do- or To-.


56. More Adjectives

large grande high, tall alto
small pequeño low, short bajo
long largo pretty lindo, bonito
short corto beautiful hermoso
good bueno ugly feo
bad malo wide ancho
rich rico narrow estrecho
poor pobre heavy pesado
strong fuerte light ligero
weak débil hard duro
easy fácil soft blando
difficult difícil sweet dulce
fat gordo sour agrio
thin delgado bitter amargo

 

When any form of the definite article is placed before an adjective, then the adjective becomes a noun.

pobre - poor; el pobre - the poor man

If the neuter article lo is placed before a singular masculine adjective, the latter becomes an abstract noun.

bueno - good; lo bueno - the good (everything that is good)


57. Sports

ball la pelota pool la piscina
game el juego basketball el básquetbol / el baloncesto
match el partido tennis el tenis
team el equipo swimming la natación
player el jugador boxing el boxeo
soccer el fútbol wrestling la lucha
football el fútbol americano hockey el hockey
baseball el béisbol volleyball el vóleibol
racket una raqueta net una red
ball (small) una pelota cleats unos zapatos de fútbol
bat un bate skis unos esquís
glove un guante ski poles unos bastones
ball un balón boots unas botas
basketball hoop una canasta helmet el casco

El básquetbol is used in Latin America, while el baloncesto is used in Spain.


58. Nature

air el aire moon la luna
archipelago el archipiélago mountain la montaña
bank la orilla mountain range la sierra
bay la bahía mouth (river) la desembocadura
barn el granero mud el barro
beach la playa nature la naturaleza
branch la rama north el norte
bridge el puente peninsula la península
bud el capullo plain el llano
bush el arbusto planet el planeta
cape el cabo plant la planta
cave la cueva pond el estanque
city la ciudad pot (for plants) la maceta
climate el clima rain la lluvia
cloud la nube rainbow el arco iris
coast la costa river el río
comet el cometa rock la roca
constellation la constelación root la raíz
country el país rose la rosa
country(side) el campo sand la arena
current la corriente sea el mar
daffodil el narciso shadow la sombra
daisy la margarita sky el cielo
darkness la obscuridad snow la nieve
desert el desierto soil el suelo
dew el rocío south el sur
dust el polvo spring (water) la fuente
earth la tierra star la estrella
east el este stem el tallo
farm la granja storm la tormenta
field el campo strait el aprieto
flower la flor stream el arroyo
foam la espuma street la calle
fog le niebla sun el sol
foliage el follaje sunflower el girasol
forest el bosque thaw el deshielo
frost la helada thunder el trueno
grass la hierba tornado el tornado
gulf el golfo tree el árbol
hail el granizo trunk el tronco
hay el heno tulip el tulipán
high tide la marea alta valley el valle
hill la colina view la vista
ice el hielo water el agua (f)
island la isla fresh water el agua dulce
isthmus el istmo salt water el agua salada
jungle la jungla watering can la regadera
lake el lago waterfall la cascada
leaf la hoja wave la ola
light la luz weather el tiempo
lightning el relámpago west el oeste
lily la azucena wind el viento
low tide la marea baja world el mundo
meadow el prado    


59. To Say & to Go Out

decir - to say / tell
  present: say(s), tell(s) preterite: said, told imperfect: said, told future: will say, tell
(yo) digo dije decía diré
(tú / vos) dices / decís dijiste decías dirás
(él / ella / usted) dice dijo decía dirá
(nosotros / nosotras) decimos dijimos decíamos diremos
(vosotros / vosotras ) decís dijisteis decíais diréis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

dicen dijeron decían dirán
     
salir - to go out
  present: go(es) out preterite: went out imperfect: went out future: will go out
(yo) salgo salí salía saldré
(tú / vos) sales / salís saliste salías saldrás
(él / ella / usted) sale salió salía saldrá
(nosotros / nosotras) salimos salimos salíamos saldremos
(vosotros / vosotras ) salís salisteis salíais saldréis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes)

salen salieron salían saldrán

Decir also has irregular participles: dicho (said/told); diciendo (saying/telling)


60. Para vs. Por & Pero vs. Sino

Para is used to express: use or destination (for), purpose (in order to); point of future time (for, by) and to be about to (estar para + infinitive - though this is not used in all varieties of Spanish.)

La carta es para Concha.  The letter is for Concha.
Estudia para aprender.  He studies in order to learn.
Lo tendré para el martes.  I will have it by Tuesday.
Juan está para salir.  John is about to leave. (not used in all varieties of Spanish)

Por is used to express:  a place through or along which; expressions of time (in, during, at); exchange, price (for); unit of measure (by, per); way or means (by); because of, on account of, for; to go for, to send for; on behalf of, for the sake of; motive, reason.  It is also used after a passive verb to indicate the agent (by) and estar por + infinitive indicates what remains to be done or to be in favor of.

por el pueblo  through the town
por la mañana  in the morning
Pagó un peso por el libro.  He paid a dollar for the book.
Se vende por libras.  It's sold by the pound.
Voy por tren.  I'm going by train.
Voy por Alicia.  I'm going for Alice.
Voté por Juanita.  I voted for Juanita.
Fue escrito por Cervantes.  It was written by Cervantes.
La carta está por escribir.  The letter is yet to be written.
Estoy por escribirla.  I am in favor of writing it.

Pero (but) usually follows an affirmative expression, but may follow a negative statement if the verb of the first clause is repeated, or if another verb follows.

Bebe leche pero no bebe café.  He drinks milk, but he does not drink coffee.

Sino (but) is only used in negative sentences of contrasting statements when the verb of the first clause is understood but not repeated.

No bebe café sino leche.  He does not drink coffee, but milk.


Buy ielanguages.com language tutorials

If you enjoy the tutorials, then please consider buying French, Informal French, Italian, Spanish, German, Swedish, or Dutch Language Tutorials as a PDF e-book with free mp3s and free lifetime updates.

Buy French Tutorial

Buy Informal French

Both French e-books

Buy Italian Tutorial

Buy Spanish Tutorial

Buy German Tutorial

Buy Swedish Tutorial

Buy Dutch Tutorial





Please consider sending a donation of any amount to help support ielanguages.com. Thank you!

Donate to ielanguages.com


Return to top of page







Learn languages with videos and subtitles at FluentU

FluentU offers authentic videos in French, Spanish, German, English, Chinese and Japanese. Learn from captions and translations and enjoy access to ALL languages!

Learn languages with videos and subtitles at Yabla

Learn Spanish, French, German, Italian, Mandarin Chinese and English with authentic videos by Yabla that include subtitles and translations.



Learn languages by reading Interlinear Books

Learn to read languages with interlinear bilingual books that include the original language and an English translation below in a smaller font.

Udemy Language Learning Courses

Hundreds of free and paid online language learning video courses at Udemy. By native speakers and experts, from Arabic to Zulu.